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CAP NHJ Volume 5, Issue 1 JAN-JUN 2018.pdf

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…a journal of
CAP history,
feature articles,
scholarly works,
and stories of

CAP National Historical Journal

Volume Issue 1: JAN-JUL 2018
Volume V,IV, Issue I: JAN-JUN 2017

The Civil Air Patrol National Historical Journal is published quarterly by professional volunteer staff. As academic historians by trade,
The Civil Air Patrol National Historical Journal is published biannually by professional volunteer staff. As academic historians by trade,
we recognize the demand for quality publications reflecting a variety of interests to Civil Air Patrol readers, and strive to provide the
we recognize
best in feature and thought provoking articles. We trust you will enjoy what the journal has to offer and will consider contributing to
contributing to
the mission of our staff in providing a forum for the great traditions of our organization.
mission of our staff in providing a forum for the great traditions of our organization.

Clash of the Titans:
Sputnik to Atlas DOCUMENT


Alexander Shelby, Ph.D.

At a news conference in Executive Office Building across
from the White House on February 8, 1956, Roland Evans
By Maj. Brock M. Lusk,
of the New York Herald Tribune asked President Dwight D.
National Historical Journal Editor
Eisenhower if the United States lagged behind the Soviet
Clemson University recognizes their alumni who have
Union in the production and development of guided
given their lives in military service through inclusion on
missiles. Eisenhower replied, of Honor, beyond being a
the Scroll of Honor. The Scroll
physical monument, documents the lives of the 493 names
“Can you picture a as a venue for be waged with
through a website and war that wouldhistorians to tell the
atomic missiles, well knowing that atomic
narrative of their sacrifices. As a Scroll of Honor committee
member with the Clemson Corps Board of Directors, I have
missiles can be of little value unless they have a
been involved in the research associated with multiple case
tremendously powerful explosive head on
files leading to the addition of nine names to the Scroll of
them? . . . In other words, they cannot be as
Honor. It was therefore a slight shock to my system, when
accurate the question, “Does dropping a bomb
I began to askas shooting a gun or Civil Air Patrol have any
documented listingconsequently, you must visualize
from a plane; of the members who made the ultimate
sacrifice?”things in such numbers and using a kind of
ammunition that means
There are many ways to evaluate thejust complete an
contributions of
organization to the nation it serves. Civil Air Patrol has
devastation. Now, to suddenly stop everything
historically looked for quantified data to tell the story of
else and just to do this, you are working toward a
these contributions; but one data point remains undocumented. Aerial flight and emergency services are by nature
1 Dwight D. Eisenhower: "The President's News Conference,"
dangerous operational activities which sometimes leads to
February 8, 1956. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The
the loss of life. The Civil
American Presidency Project. Air Patrol’s 77 years of service have

theory that, to my mind, leaves no longer war,
because war is a contest, and you finally get to a
not been immune to this type of tragedy, but proving that
point where you are talking merely about race
point is currently on an anecdotal or situational basis. In
telling suicide, and the “Flying Minutemen,” Robert Neprud
the story of nothing else.”
lists 63 Civil Air Patrol members to include cadets (and one
Eisenhower’s who lost however, was misleading. As
prospective cadet)response, their lives on active missions.1
I would be hesitant to say this States began development of
early as 1946, the United is a complete listing though,
because there is no information on what criteria was used
Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs). For the next
to vet names on the listing.
ten years, the Truman and Eisenhower administrations
Civil Air Patrol presents a unique situation, where volun- to
would allocate millions in government funding
teers move in and out of an operational status and may of
produce a long-range ballistic missile, the outcome
render aid while not in uniform. This presents a risk, where
which would be the U.S. Air Force’s Atlas, Thor, and Titan
only clearly defined criteria must be used in order to ensure
the and the U.S.the honor of being added to such a compreintegrity of Navy’s Solaris ICBM fleets.
hensive listing.
hen the Soviet Union launched Sputnik on 4
The Clemson Corps process for establishing the Scroll of
October 1957, many Americans assumed that
Honor’s criteria was evolutionary in nature, but we can
the United States had fallen behind in missile and rocket
learn lessons from their procedure (and other similar
technology. There was well as that the Kremlin
honors for the deceased) asa beliefuse the criteria out- had


lined below asin surpassing America in the fieldson how to
succeeded a starting point for the discussion of science
honor the Civil Air Patrol members who made the ultimate
and technology. All the signs of Soviet inventiveness were
there. The Soviets exploded their first atomic bomb in

1949—four years after the United States detonated two

BASELINE CRITERIA (accessed August
First and foremost, Civil Air Patrol must determine what 4,
defines a “member” of the Civil Air Patrol for this purpose.


1. Neprud, Robert. Flying Minute Men: The Story of the Civil Air Patrol. Duell, Sloan and Pearce, New York. 1948. Pp. 233 - 236


CAPR 39-2, Civil Air Patrol Membership, defines four
major categories of membership and an additional nine
membership subcategories.2 In order to simplify the baseline proposal of this article as well as work with the most
commonly known categories of membership; the following definition of active membership as found in CAPR 35-1
will be utilized for this article: “Any member who maintains current membership as a cadet, senior, 50-year or
life member, unless otherwise provided for in this section,
is considered in active status and is entitled to attend
meetings, participate in CAP activities, wear the CAP uniform and exercise other privileges of membership.”3
This is not to preclude a future Civil Air Patrol Scroll of
Honor from excluding other membership categories, but,
care must be given to defining the criteria because otherwise you open the aperture too widely and what is meant
to be an honor bestowed becomes watered down.
The Clemson Corps Scroll of Honor Standard Operating
Procedure defines one key criteria as “Those alumni
who while serving as a member of the Armed Forces of
the United States: Army, Navy, Marine Corps, Air Force
and Coast Guard lost their lives in the performance of
their military duties are eligible.”4 The paragraph further
clarifies that performance of military duties includes both
killed in combat operations as well as those killed in the
performance of military duties while involved in training,
aircrew missions, or other normal duty operations or
activities. This is where the Civil Air Patrol must be both
clear in defining what roles constitute “performance of
Civil Air Patrol duties” and what circumstances should be
As a baseline criteria for the purpose of this paper, the
following proposed roles would be considered the “performance of Civil Air Patrol duties.”
• Performance of an Air Force Assigned Mission

• Flight in a Civil Air Patrol Aircraft
• Travel to and from, and participation in a Civil Air Patrol
activity to include unit meetings, conferences, training
activities and encampments
• Performance of Emergency Services missions
• A caveat stating, “case-by-case considerations since all
circumstances surrounding a nomination cannot be anticipated,” should be included in any criteria though considering the volunteer nature of the organization.5
The most easily defined criteria in modern times would
be a criteria which has proven elusive cases pre-dating
World War II. Civil Air Patrol members who lost their lives
in the performance of Civil Air Patrol duties, to include
those who died later of wounds suffered as a result of an
accident while performing their Civil Air Patrol duties may
be considered for inclusion. While not specifically including deaths due to illness (similar to the Vietnam Veterans
Memorial Wall criteria,) the proposed criteria should not
rule out consideration of those deaths if circumstances
warrant a “case-by-case”6 review.

CASE STUDY 1: Lt. Annette Leder of New York Wing took
off in Cessna 172, tail number N217NY from Flushing
Airport at 10:05 AM on May 22, 1977.7 The flight was an
orientation flight for three cadets. Three minutes after
takeoff, the aircraft crashed into a Queens home. Lt. Leder
was apparently attempting to return to the now-closed
airport after experiencing mechanical difficulties. She was
injured along with Cadet Miguel Rosado and Martin Jorge.
Neighbors to the crash location were attempting to get
Cadet Edward Guevara out of the aircraft when the engine
exploded engulfing the cadet in flames. He died on the

2. CAPR 39-2. Civil Air Patrol Membership. National Headquarters, Civil Air Patrol. Maxwell AFB, AL. 9 Jan 2017. Pg. 3
3. CAPR 35-1. Assignment and Duty Status. National Headquarters, Civil Air Patrol. Maxwell AFB, Ala. Pg. 2
4. Clemson Corps. Scroll of Honor Nomination and Consideration Procedures. 8 Jun 2012. Para. 4.a
5. Clemson Corps. Scroll of Honor Nomination and Consideration Procedures. 8 Jun 2012. Para 4.f
6. Ibid. Para. 4.e
7. National Transportation Safety Board. Aviation Accident Report NYC77FA059. Accessed online.


scene as responders were forced to pull back.8

corroborating source materials would meet the criteria.11

Utilizing the New York Times article and the NTSB accident
report as source material, we establish that Cadet
Guevara meets the criteria of being a cadet in an active
membership status, taking part in flight in a Civil Air Patrol

Not all potential cases would be so easily proven to meet
the proposed criteria, which warrants the “case-by-case”
clause proposed earlier in this article.

CASE STUDY 2: On Aug. 13, 1989, Civil Air Patrol pilot
Eugene Wayne Knight departed the St. Petersburg, Fla.,
airport on an orientation flight with Cadet Damian Weber,
Cadet Shawn Kelley, and Cadet Joe Flythe in Civil Air Patrol
Cessna 172 tail number N99901.9 Flying approximately 3
miles offshore near Pass-a-Grille, Fla., the plane entered
a stall and a witness observed it spinning out of control
nose down. The aircraft struck the water, sinking 20 feet
into the murky depths. All four Civil Air Patrol airmen
were killed in the crash. The flight was reported by the
St. Petersburg Times and The Tampa Tribune as an
orientation flight.10
Again, in this case study we have a Senior Member and
three cadets in an active membership status, taking part in
flight in a Civil Air Patrol aircraft. Documentation of these
nominations would be clear to establish meeting the
proposed criteria listed above, but these examples might
raise the question, “what about non-flying casualties?”
CASE STUDY 3: On Jan. 18, 1958, Cadet Jergen Patt was
hiking with other cadets as part of an unidentified training
program near Frenchman Flats near Newhall, Calif. Cadet
Patt fell 300 feet into a canyon while taking part in the
training hike to his death. Based on the criteria listed
above, Cadet Patt would meet the criteria outlined earlier
in this article. He was an active member taking part in a
training exercise at the time of his death. While the single
news report of his death in the Los Angeles Times may
not meet the burden of proof for a complete case file; the
criteria one the facts of the case are established through

CASE STUDY 4: Cadet Major John J. Legendziewicz of the
Raritan Valley Composite Squadron was driving home on
September 27, 1981 after watching a movie with three of
his friends. After spotting a motorist from Boston who had
a minor accident, the friends stopped and began to render
aid. A drunk driver struck the disabled vehicle, killing
Cadet Legendziewicz.12 He was awarded the Silver Medal
of Valor for his sacrifice, and Cadet Thomas A. Kuster
received a Silver Medal of Valor for attempting to save
Legendziewicz’s life during the automobile accident.13
Cadet Legendziewicz’s award of the Silver Medal of
Valor is evidence of his active membership at the time
of his death, and this is confirmed in multiple news
articles concerning the accident. The second criteria
for addition to a Civil Air Patrol Scroll of Honor is the
“performance of Civil Air Patrol duties.” It could be argued
that the rendering of first aid, a skill mastered by Cadet
Legendzieweicz who performed duties as the Medical
Officer at a Ground Search and Rescue School was
performance of “Emergency Services.” But, this is not a
clear meeting of the criteria listed earlier.
The research which would go into a Scroll of Honor would
provide a mechanism to begin to tell the Civil Air Patrol
story beyond the Flying Minutemen. From an operational
standpoint, categorization of this information would
provide not just an emotional, but also a quantifiable
measure of the contribution Civil Air Patrol’s volunteers
have paid, sadly in blood, for their service to the nation. At
the dedication of Clemson University’s Scroll of Honor, Col.
Beverley N. “Ben” Skardon, a two time Silver Star recipient
and survivor of the Bataan Death March delivered this

8. Dionne, E. J., Jr. “Boy Killed as Plane Hits Queens Home.” The New York Times. Accessed August 15, 2018.
9. National Transportation Safety Board. Aviation Accident Report MIA89FA220. Accessed online.
10. Hernandez, Rosalva. “Pilot, teens killed in plane crash.” The Tampa Tribune. Tampa, Fla. August 14, 1989. Pg. 1A
11. “CAP Cadet, 17, Killed in 300-Foot Plunge.” Los Angeles Times. January 19, 1958. Pg. 3
12. Cooke, Annemarie. “Man gets jail term in area teen’s death.” The Central New Jersey Home News. New Brunswick, N.J. July 16, 1983. Pg. 18
13. The Courier-News. Bridgewater, N.J. December 28, 1981. Pg. 11


quote as part of his speech. “They lived and served and
died that we might live and serve.” Two of his friends,
credited with saving his life while a Prisoner of War of the
Japanese, are listed on the Scroll of Honor at Clemson. As
Civil Air Patrol airmen, we must realize there are men and
women who have sacrificed before us. They lived, served
and died that we might live and serve.

Compiled by Maj. Brock M. Lusk

Maj. Brock Lusk
National Historical Journal Editor
Maj. Brock Lusk
joined Civil Air
Patrol as a cadet in
1996, and rejoined
in 2015.  This is his
first year on the
national history
staff, where he is
assigned as the
Editor for the
National Historical
Journal.  He
has a Master’s
Degree in History
from Clemson
Maj. Brock Lusk,
University, with
National Historical Journal Editor
a focus on PostColonial Counterinsurgency and World War I history. 
Lusk is an officer in the Air Force Reserve and is on active
duty serving as the Operations Officer and an Assistant
Professor of Aerospace Studies at Air Force ROTC
Detachment 770 at Clemson University.  He has deployed
to Iraq, Yemen, and other locations across the Middle East
and is a veteran of Operation Iraqi Freedom, Operation
Enduring Freedom, and Operation New Dawn. 

Maj. Brock Lusk is an Air Force Reserve officer on active duty,
and serves full time as the Operations Officer for Air Force ROTC
Detachment 770 at Clemson University. He is a member of the
Clemson Corps Board of Directors, in addition to his volunteer
work with Civil Air Patrol.

His awards include the Defense Meritorious Service
Medal, the Air Force Meritorious Service Medal, the Joint
Commendation Medal with Oak Leaf Cluster, the Army
Commendation Medal with Oak Leaf Cluster, the Joint
Service Achievement Medal with Oak Leaf Cluster, and the
Air Force Achievement Medal with Oak Leaf Cluster.

Maj. Kurt J. Efinger
Publications and Research Division Chief
Maj. Kurt Efinger
is the Publications
& Research
Division Chief, for
which he oversees
publication of
the CAP National
Journal, social
media platforms,
collection of
annual histories,
and other projects
related to his
division. Prior
Maj. Kurt J. Efinger,
to joining the
Publications and Research Division Chief
staff this year, he
served as Editor
of the National Historical Journal, which he co-founded
in 2013. While serving ADY on the national staff, Efinger
was the Historian for Southeast Region, and held positions
as the Deputy Chief of Staff for Plans, Programs and
Requirements, and Drug Demand Reduction Coordinator.

Efinger holds a Master’s Degree in Military History with a
concentration in air-power theory, as well as a Bachelor’s
Degree in history, and an Associate of Arts degree in
Journalism. He spent 10 years in broadcast journalism
before leaving the profession to teach. For more than 20
years, Efinger has taught at the secondary and collegiate
levels, where he teaches Economics, U.S. Government
& Politics, and History courses in American, World, and
Western civilizations.
His awards include the CAP Exceptional Service Award
with three devices, the CAP Meritorious Service Award,
and the CAP Achievement Award.

Lt. Col. Richard B. Mulanax
National Historian
Lt. Col. Richard
B. Mulanax is the
national historian
of Civil Air Patrol.
Mulanax joined
CAP as a college
student in 1967.
He was called
to active duty
with the Air
Force in 1972
after completing
graduate school at
UCLA, and over the
years, he served in
Lt. Col. Richard B. Mulanax,
various squadron
CAP National Historian
level staff positions
in California and
Texas, and as commander of the overseas Zweibruecken
Cadet Squadron in Germany. He was also commander of
Group 2, Texas Wing, in Wichita Falls, Texas.
Before his current assignment, he was Chief of the
Research Division of the National History Staff, and Region
Historian for the Southeast Region. He previously served
as Deputy Chief of Staff for Aerospace Education for Rocky

Command & Staff
National Commander
Maj. Gen. Mark Smith
Chief Historian
Lt. Col. Richard B. Mulanax
Publications and Research Division
Maj. Kurt Efinger, Chief
Lt. Col. David Brown, Annual Histories Manager
Maj. Gwen Brown, Annual Histories Editor
Capt. Timothy Bagnell, Social Media Manager
National Historical Journal
Maj. Brock Lusk, editor
Lt. Col. Douglas E. Jessmer, copy editor
Maj. Erik Koglin, media specialist
National Archives and Historial
Collections Division
Maj. Colleen McCormick, Ph.D., Chief
2nd Lt. Dereck Jones and 2nd Lt. Albert Burckard,
Software Development Specialists
Col. Louisa S. Morse Center
For Civil Air Patrol History
Col. Frank Blazich Jr., Ph.D., Director
Col. Len Blascovich, National Historian Emeritus
Lt. Col. Jacob Gerstein, Advisor
Historical Projects Division
Lt. Col. Phil Saleet, Chief
Capt. Joshua Bell, Oral History Manager
Lt. Col. Phil Kost, Heraldry Manager
Lt. Col. Sean Neal, Reenactments Manager
Mountain Region, and various other CAP assignments in
California, Texas, and Florida wings.
Mulanax received his doctorate in history from Florida
State University and served for twenty years on the faculty
of Indian River State College in Fort Pierce, Fla., retiring
as a Professor of History. He holds a Master’s degree in
African Area Studies from the University of California, Los
Angeles, and a Master of Science in International Relations
and Master of Public Administration degrees from Troy
University in Alabama.

For 20 years before this, he served as a regular officer
in the U.S. Air Force, with assignments as an Assistant
Professor of History and Executive Officer of the
Ddepartment of History at the U.S. Air Force Academy.
He also served on the faculty of the Air Force Special
Operations School at Hurlburt Field, Fla., where he was
an International Politico-Military Affairs Officer and
Chief of the Africa Branch. Other Air Force assignments
included Director of Base Administration and Commander
of the headquarters squadrons of the 26th Tactical
Reconnaissance Wing at Zweibruecken AB, Germany, and
39th Tactical Wing, Incirlik AB, Turkey.
His awards include the Air Force Meritorious Service
Medal with two oak leaf clusters, the Air Force
Commendation Medal with two oak leaf clusters, the
CAP Exceptional Service Award with five devices, the CAP
Meritorious Service Award with four devices, and the CAP
Achievement Award. He is a life member of the Disabled
American Veterans and the Military Officers Association.

Lt. Col. Douglas E. Jessmer
NHJ copy editor
Lt. Col. Douglas E. Jessmer started in CAP as a cadet in
West Virginia Wing in 1984, and has remained a member
since. The pinnacle of the cadet program, the Gen.
Carl A. Spaatz Award, was in his grasp at age 15, but he
advises, “don’t fast-burn the cadet program — there’s so
much you’ll miss along the way if your aspirations aren’t
He is a rated observer and master public affairs officer,
was twice a squadron commander, and was CAP’s National
Marketing and Public Affairs Officer in 2012-13 and the
Florida Wing Director of Public Affairs from 2010-12.
He was part of CAP’s information response during the
2010 Deepwater Horizon disaster, and most recently has
spearheaded the design and philosophy of CAP’s new
A native of Alliance, Ohio, who spent much of his formative
years in northern West Virginia, Jessmer holds a Bachelor’s
Degree in Journalism from Marietta College in Ohio. He is a

graduate of U.S. Air Force Squadron Officer School and is a
qualified public information officer.
He spent more than two decades in newsgathering,
with career stops at the St. Petersburg Times/Tampa
Bay Times, the Pittsburgh Tribune-Review, The Detroit
News and the Sarasota Herald-Tribune, as well as several
smaller newspapers in Ohio, California, Florida and West
Virginia. Jessmer has been a reporter, section editor, copy
editor, designer, photographer, photo editor, graphics
editor, presentation editor, managing editor and editor
— his flexible and wide-ranging skill set is rare among
journalists. Among
his awards are
acclaim from the
Society for News
Design for the
2003 redesign
of the Pittsburgh
Trib, a process
in which he was
a core team
He’s also been
recognized for
reporting, editing,
Lt. Col. Douglas E. Jessmer,
National Historical Journal
graphics and
copy editor
design by
the West Virginia and Florida press associations, the
Associated Press Society of Ohio, the Pennsylvania
Newspaper Association and the Ohio Newspaper
Advertising Executives.
“Journalism is a bit of a vagabond profession,” he said.
“I’ve been a lot of places I’d never have seen otherwise,
and done a lot of things others don’t usually get to do.”
Among the experiences he enjoyed most were flights in a
Goodyear blimp and a hot-air balloon, and photographing
college and NFL football and major-league baseball games.
After leaving print journalism in 2013, he became a
Marketing Specialist for the Tampa (Fla.) Metropolitan
Area YMCA and YMCA of the Suncoast in Clearwater,

Fla., where he stayed until late summer 2018. He is now
the Media and Communications Manager for Suncoast
Aquatic Nature Center Associates in Sarasota, Fla., which
manages a world-class aquatics facility, Nathan Benderson
He has two Meritorious Service Awards, nine
Commander’s Commendation Awards, an Achievement
Award, a National Commander’s Unit Citation Award,
the Paul E. Garber Award with bronze star, the Gen. Ira
C. Eaker Award and the Disaster Relief Ribbon with “V”
device, among others.

Maj. Erik Koglin
National History Staff Media Specialist
Maj. Erik Koglin joined CAP in 2009. The greater portion
of his time has been working in a few duty areas in cadet
programs, enjoying time with his son in their local squadron
and reconnecting with flying in light airplanes. In 2016

Col. Frank A. Blazich Jr., Ph.D., CAP

This year marks 70 years since the Civil Air Patrol (CAP)
first participated in what became known as the International Air Cadet Exchange (IACE). In 1948, a group of 24
cadets and two senior officer escorts ventured north to
Canada while 24 Royal Canadian Air Cadets traveled south
to destinations in the United States. CAP’s first international cadet exchange experience can be told through two
scrapbooks, one from the ranking escort, Maj. Louis A. Edwards, and another from a cadet, Cadet Franklin R. Meyer.
Informative and humorous, these two scrapbooks capture
two weeks of adventure, friendship, and possible youthful
romance among neighbors and allies.

he was assigned
to the National
History Staff as a
Media Specialist.
Koglin is a “jackof-all-trades” in
the creative field.
Over the last
25 years he has
produced work
in photography,
illustration, graphic
design, exhibit
Maj. Erik Koglin
architecture, 3D
National History Journal
Media Specialist
modeling, grand
format printing
and the list is continuing to grow. He is a Creative Director
for an exhibit design and production company in the
Nashville area and an award-winning designer.

First, a little background to understand how CAP’s participation in IACE came into being. IACE itself traces its origins
to a meeting between representatives of the United
Kingdom Air Training Corps and the Air Cadet League of
Canada (ACLC) in Montreal on April 11, 1946, to initiate a
proposal for a formal exchange of cadets. A polio outbreak
in Canada curtailed the exchange in 1946, but the following year an exchange of 46 cadets and two escort officers
commenced between Canada and the United Kingdom.
On Nov. 20, 1947, CAP’s national commander, then-Brig.
Gen. Lucas V. Beau, received a letter from Mr. George M.
Ross, managing director of the ACLC. Ross invited Beau
and his staff to meet in Ottawa in early February 1948 to
discuss “matters pertaining to the recruiting and the training of Civil Air Patrol cadets and Air Cadets, their counterpart in the United Kingdom and the various Dominions. In
addition, it was hoped that the various participating countries would be able to enter into discussions relative to the
possibility of exchanging Air Cadets and CAP Cadets.” With


permission from the U.S. Air Force, Beau and members
of his staff attended the ACLC’s annual meeting and both
parties initiated plans for a cadet exchange later that year.
Details of the plans emerged in April 1948. On the ninth,
the ACLC announced that CAP reached agreement to
exchange cadets with Canada. At CAP’s third annual
Congressional dinner on May 26, recently promoted
Major General Beau addressed hundreds of members of
Congress, approximately 75 U.S. Air Force generals, and
several Canadian officials. He
announced the beginning of “a
cadet activity which I believe
to be one of the finest the
Civil Air Patrol has ever sponsored.” Beau declared that 24
American CAP cadets would be
exchanged with 24 Canadian
cadets, while an additional 40
Canadian cadets would comMaj. Gen. Lucas Beau
pete against a like-number of
CAP cadets in an international
drill competition in New York City on Aug. 7. At Idlewild International Airport on that Saturday, the Canadian cadets
won the inaugural Maj. Gen. Lucas V. Beau International
Challenge Trophy in front of a crowd of 185,000.
Prior to Beau’s address, CAP National Headquarters
commenced locating the cadets who would be sent on
the exchange. In early May, National Headquarters at
Bolling Air Force Base, Washington, DC, instructed wing
commanders to submit one name for consideration to be
one of the 24 cadets selected for the exchange in Canada.
By early July, National Headquarters made its selections
of the cadets. To oversee the cadets and coordinate with
Canadian authorities, National Headquarters selected two
men, CAP Maj. Louis A. Edwards of Detroit, the Michigan
Wing adjutant, and Air Force Capt. Emerson L. Armstrong
of Des Moines, the Iowa Wing Air Force-CAP liaison officer.
On July 12, Cadet Franklin R. Meyer of Cheshire, Conn.,
received a congratulatory letter from the national commander. Beau informed Meyer that “you have been chosen to represent: (1) Your country, (2) the United States
Air Force, and (3) Civil Air Patrol on a tour of Canada as

part of an exchange program with Royal Canadian Air
Cadets this summer.” Beau listed the tour dates from July
28 to August 16 with baggage requirements of 40 pounds,
ideally in one Air Force B-4 bag and one small bag for
personal effects. Cadet Meyer and his 23 young colleagues
were ordered to pack two summer uniforms, khaki Class
A with garrison cap, a jacket for evenings, extra pair of
shoes and an extra cap, plus a good supply of shirts, socks,
underwear, swimming trunks, tooth brush, towels and
toilet soap. For any remaining space, cadets could bring
a camera and a good supply of film as well as money for
personal spending.
The itinerary for the CAP group changed slightly over the
course of the exchange but the following is a somewhat
detailed reconstruction of the journey of the American
ambassadors. Both the American and Canadian cadet bodies were organized into two groups. Twelve cadets from
the eastern states, designated the Eastern Group, assembled between July 28-29 at Selfridge Air Force Base, near
Detroit, Mich., under the supervision of Edwards. The
cadets from the western states, representing the Western
Group, met at Lowry Air Force Base, near Denver, Colo.,
under supervision of Armstrong.
The RCAC selectees, like their American counterparts,
came from across Canada and represented the best
cadets in the land. In terms of the visit, the RCAC itinerary
differed from the Americans in that both parties started
together, split into eastern and western parties, then met
again before returning to Canada.
Civil Air Patrol does not have any primary records from
cadets of the Western Group beyond a few brief summary
reports. To summarize their experience, the cadets first
met at Lowry AFB on July 29, boarded a USAF C-47 “Skytrain” transport and flew to Great Falls, Montana. After
clearing customs, the plane flew on to Calgary, Alberta on
July 30 where the American cadets met 12 Royal Canadian
Air Cadets. After leaving Calgary on July 31, the CAP cadets
flew to Royal Canadian Air Force Base (RCAF) Station Sea
Island, Vancouver, British Columbia where the Americans
were guests at a dinner and graduation ceremony of
Royal Canadian Air Cadets from a flying training course.
On Aug. 1, the Western Group left Station Sea Island in a

RCAF Avro Lancaster bomber and flew to Victoria, British
Columbia to meet up with the Eastern Group at Patricia
Bay Air Cadet Camp.
The scrapbooks of Edwards and Meyer are detailed
enough to walk through the experiences of the Eastern
Group through photographs and surviving documents.
The Eastern Group flew in a USAF C-47 transport to Royal
Canadian Air Force (RCAF) Station Rockcliffe, Ottawa, Ontario, on July 30 for a meeting of 12 Canadian Air Cadets
on their way south to tour the United States. On the flight
to Ottawa the cadets played cards, wrote letters, slept, or
enjoyed the scenery out of the windows.
Arriving early, the C-47 circled about for around 30
minutes until the Canadian representatives were ready
promptly at 11:00 a.m. Precisely at that hour, the C-47
landed, taxied into position, and came to a complete stop
by a formation of 12 Royal Canadian Air Cadets under
command of Flight Lieutenant L.W.C. Limpert. Edwards,
USAF Maj. James S. Abrams, and the 12 CAP cadets exited
the aircraft and marched in formation into position facing
the Canadian cadets. As the Royal Canadian Mounted
Police Band sounded the “General’s March,” Edwards and
Abrams marched to position between the lines of cadets.
As the cadets stood at attention, they received a personal
inspection by RCAF Air Vice Marshal Charles R. Slemon.
Afterwards, he introduced the Americans to Mr. C. Douglas Taylor, honorary president of the ACLC, who welcomed
the CAP cadets.
Following his address, all cadets exchanged greetings and
the formalities concluded with friendly chatter. Remarked
Edwards: “The ceremony of welcome was most colorful
and was extremely well done. The Canadian Air Cadets
were immaculate in dress, in perfect formation, and sharp
as a razor and the CAP were also something to see.”
From the flightline, the cadets met with press and toured
a static display of RCAF aircraft. They received a luncheon
tendered by Chief of the Air Staff, Air Marshal Wilfred A.
Curtis, who gave a welcoming address to all assembled.
Following luncheon, the cadets were driven to Ottawa
with an escort by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police
and Ottawa Police. The party first headed for a tour of

the Parliament Buildings before a meeting with American
Ambassador Ray Atherton at the embassy for an official
welcome. Afterwards, the party toured the French portion
of Ottawa and drove into the Gatineau Valley to visit the
summer estate of Mr. George Ross, managing director
of the ACLC for a swimming party. Cadet Carl Stark from
Minnesota Wing managed to swim across the Gatineau
River and back, greatly impressing Air Vice Marshal Arthur
L. James.
After a buffet dinner and a slide show of the previous
year’s cadet exchange between Canada and Great Britain,
James’s 14-year old daughter, Sandra, hosted a dance for
the cadets and presented each CAP cadet and their escort
officers with a small ACLC pin. Edwards secured official
sanction by Ross, and shortly thereafter received permission from CAP National Headquarters for these ACLC
insignia pins to become an official uniform item. The CAP
cadets thereafter wore the pins half an inch below the
knot of the necktie for the remainder of the exchange.
The next day, the CAP cadets bid their Canadian counterparts a fond farewell as they departed for the United
States with Major Abrams. The CAP cadets and Edwards
then boarded a RCAF C-47 “Dakota” transport aircraft and
left RCAF Station Rockcliffe with the addition of Flight Lieutenant Ainsley G. Dagg, Mr. Ross, and a gift of 10 cartons
of cigarettes for the cadets from the U.S. Embassy. The
entire party had a long day ahead, bound for Fort William, Winnipeg, Lethbridge, and lastly Vancouver. Rough
weather made the initial part of the trip stomach-churning
for the cadets before the air smoothed and the aircraft arrived in Ontario for a tour of Fort William and Port Arthur,
together with a lunch at Chippewa Park on the shore of
Lake Superior. After lunch, the cadets visited a zoo at the
park and watched Canadian Air Cadets feed a 500-pound
black bear by hand before giving it a try themselves. That
afternoon, with thunderstorms stirring, the cadets flew on
to Winnipeg. After an uneventful flight, the cadets disembarked and saw a captured German rocket plane and one
of the RCAF’s new de Havilland Vampire jet fighters.
The next morning, Aug. 1, they flew from Winnipeg and
headed to Lethbridge. After a brief two-hour stay, the
group took off for Vancouver and Patricia Bay. At 12,000

feet altitude, the Americans cadets gazed in wonder at the
Canadian Rockies and clicked away at their cameras. That
afternoon, the plane landed at RCAF Station Sea Island,
Vancouver and then departed for RCAF Station Patricia
Bay, Victoria, British Columbia.
At Patricia Bay, the eastern and western CAP cadet groups
met for the first time on Aug. 1. They together received
a warm welcome and the cadets made their home in the
RCAF Patricia Bay Air Cadet Camp.
After freshening up after arrival, the Canadian hosts treated the Americans to a two-hour ride on a motor torpedo
boat or MTB, akin to an American PT boat. Recalled Meyer, “None of us had ever riden [sic] on a P.T. boat before
and it was quite an experience. They travel at 45 miles an
hour.” The next day, Edwards and Armstrong established a
cadet officer of the day system for each cadet to lead and
oversee their peers. The senior officers were helped in
turn by Canadian escort RCAF Sergeant Major Robert W.
Shipperbottom who billeted with the cadets.
The morning of Aug. 2, everyone left the station and arrived
at a naval jetty at what is today’s Canadian Forces Base Exquimalt to board and inspect the Minotaur-class light cruiser His Majesty’s Canadian Service (HMCS) Ontario at the
courtesy of Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) Captain J.S. Hibbard.
For two hours, members of the ship’s company showed the
cadets the vessel “from stem to stern and bridge to boilers.”
After departing the ship, the Gyro Club of Victoria hosted
the cadets at Lougheed’s Banquet Hall for luncheon before
the party proceeded to the Parliament buildings. After
a tour of the Parliament facilities, the cadets assembled
outside of the Crystal Garden and enjoyed a swim in the
pool which was filled with heated, chlorinated sea water.
That evening the Victoria Yacht Club on Arbutus Bay hosted
a dinner and a dance for the CAP contingent. “This was
our first surprise!” wrote Meyer, “For it was at this dinner
that 24 pretty Victoria girls were our companions for the
evening. We all enjoyed the evening.”

with callings at James Island and Port Washington. After
several hours cruising, the liner arrived at Ganges Harbor on Salt Spring Island for an hour of exploring by the
cadets. Later in the afternoon, the cadets boarded a bus
and were driven to a dock at Fulford to be ferried back to
Swartz Bay before taking another bus back to Victoria for
a banquet at the Douglas Hotel as guests of the Mayor of
Victoria, his Worship Mayor P.E. George. As that evening
would be the cadet’s last in Patricia Bay, they all chipped
in to purchase a new wallet and place $7.00 in it as a
thank you gift for Sergeant Major Shipperbottom.

Aug. 3 commenced with a voyage on water. Arriving at
the Canadian Pacific Railway dock, the cadets boarded the
passenger liner SS Princess Mary for a five-hour journey
around Vancouver Island and through the Gulf Islands

On Aug. 4, the cadets bid farewell to Patricia Bay. That
morning they boarded an MTB and roared off on the
water to the Imperial Cannery at Steveston. The American delegation received a thorough tour of the salmon

TOP: Cadet Meyer shakes hands with Warrant Officer Class
Two Earl Barr of Toronto. ABOVE: From the left across is Air
Vice Marshal Slemon, Major Edwards, Mr. Taylor, and Major


cannery. Meyer wrote a rather lengthy description of the
The reception at the cannery was something none of us
had ever seen or will ever [be] seen again by us. We had a
lunch of baked, fried, boiled, broiled, and salmon cheese
and sauce made of salmon. We also had shrimp cocktail.
On this tour of the cannery we watched the fish being
taken off the boats and watched the fish being cut up,
ground, washed, packed, and cooked. From there the cans
of processed salmon were packed either for storage or
shipment. The cannery didn’t have a very pleasant odor.
After the cannery visit – and a change of uniform, Air
Vice Marshal Kenneth G. Nairn received the Americans
at his estate for a garden party. At the party, a number of
citizens of Vancouver attended along with “pretty girls for
the cadets.” All the cadets and American officers received
a sweater from the ACLC featuring a red totem pole with
red wings on the shoulders on a gray background. In the
evening the senior guests and their daughters took the
cadets home for dinner and entertainment before the
cadets returned to barracks at RCAF Station Sea Island
outside of Vancouver.
Suffice to say, even more adventure lay in store. On the
morning of Aug. 5, two RCAF C-47 Dakotas flew the CAP
contingent 300 miles to Prince George. Arriving around
noon, the Prince George Board of Trade and the Rotary
Club received everyone for luncheon. After the meal, the

Americans drove 50 miles north to Davie Lake Camp of
the Campbell Mannix Construction Company on the Alcan
Highway where the cadets spent the night. The camp was
a bit primitive, “it had all the comforts of 1850,” mused
Meyer, but the lake offered tremendous trout fishing despite the rain. Although the fishing was out of season, the
local game warden was present and made an exception
for the American guests. That evening professional singer
Ingrid Anderson led camp songs.
The remoteness of the camp cannot be understated. The
next morning around 5 a.m. the howls of wolves startled
the cadets awake, followed by a bear that knocked over
the garbage cans rummaging for food. Despite the visit of
the local wildlife, the cadets enjoyed a worker’s breakfast
of ham, eggs, sausage, milk, pancakes, and potatoes, then
drove back to Prince George for lunch courtesy of the
Rotary Club at the Prince George Hotel.
The afternoon of Aug. 6, the cadets flew back to Vancouver and attended an Inter-city Box Lacrosse League
game between the Burrards and the Salmonbellies at the
Vancouver Forum. Lacrosse came as a shock to the Americans. “This game is faster and rougher than American
hockey,” observed Meyer.
The tour took a slight breather on the weekend of Aug.7
and 8. On Saturday, the cadets voluntarily practiced
drilling and looking over various RCAF aircraft. Later in
the afternoon, the Royal Vancouver Yacht Club hosted the

HMCS Ontario


cadets at their Mid-summer Regatta for sailing and swimming. During the regatta, the cadets had a slight accident
or two with the boats, and their hosts invited them to participate in a race which a few attempted with good fun for
all. That evening the yacht club hosted a dinner and dance
with young ladies as dance partners for the Americans.
Meyer described the night as one of the “most enjoyable
days of the trip in most of our eyes” and mentioned meeting University of British Columbia coed Miss Elizabeth Taylor. In Meyer’s own words, “Everyone one of us regretted
that we had to return to the base at 12:00. However we
saw our ‘dates’ later in the week.” Curiously, Edwards and
Armstrong apparently stayed back at the barracks while
the cadets enjoyed the festivities.

next day the cadets enjoyed a free morning in Vancouver;
Meyer took a stroll through Stanley Park with Miss Taylor.
In the afternoon, the Americans flew back to the forest to
witness more logging before heading on to Paisley Island,
owned by Air Commodore Alan Duncan Bell-Irving, for
fishing, swimming, and dinner.

Sunday, Aug. 9 was not much different. With the morning
free, Armstrong flew the Eastern Group of cadets in turn
aloft in a North American T-6 Texan, although in this case a
RCAF T-6 “Harvard.” Other cadets attended church services. One cadet, William Jeffries of the National Capital
Wing, was late for the morning formation and thereafter
the other 23 cadets, in Edwards’ words, “took turns at
drilling him bowlegged.” That afternoon, the CAP contingent headed to the estate of retired Major and Mrs.
August Taylor in Vancouver. Taylor, an executive of the
Standard Oil Company of Canada, welcomed the cadets
with another 24 young ladies and after the swimming
party concluded, all the cadets received permission to go
to the various girls’ homes for the evenings, on invitation,
provided the cadets could make the trip back to base
safely. On this evening, Meyer met and chatted with Miss
Tammy Rice.

rolls of newsprint paper was better than the best magician’s show.” Small yachts moved the cadets farther up
the Powell River for salmon fishing, albeit unsuccessful,
a hearty lunch, and swimming before returning via flying
boat to RCAF Station Sea Island in the evening.

Bright and early on Aug. 10, the cadets boarded a Catalina flying boat and a Canadian Noorduyn Norseman bush
plane and flew to Sproat Lake to witness logging operations. Everyone watched awestruck as the lumberjacks
felled massive trees in minutes that were hauled out of
the forest on a cable trolley to a river before floating to
lumber mills to be turned into matches and paper pulp.
Returning by flying boat to Vancouver in the afternoon,
the cadets had a free night. Cadets Meyer and Rutigliano
acquired dates and went to the Vancouver Forum to hear
a performance by Charlie Barnet and his Orchestra. The

On the morning of Aug. 11, the cadets flew to Powell River
as guests of the Powell River Company. There, the cadets
watched logs brought in from a boom and transformed
into pulp at the nearby mill. As Edwards later reported,
“The sight of the huge logs being stripped of bark by
water pressure, sawed to small sizes and reduced to chips,
pulverized, and finally floated into one end of a machine
as a soupy liquid and coming out the other end as huge

On Thursday the twelfth, the morning festivities included
observing the weekly inspection of the personnel at the
Sea Island, an examination of the air-sea rescue equipment, and a walk-through of a Vampire jet fighter. The city
of Vancouver hosted a lunch at Stanley Park and Acting
Mayor Jonathan D. Cornett led a city tour. In the evening,
everyone attended the city’s “Theatre Under the Stars”
and witnessed a performance of the play “The Great
Waltz” about Johann Strauss. Edwards purchased extra
tickets to allow the cadets to bring along their Vancouver
dates. The cadets again received permission to remain out
as long as they desired. Meyer spent his evening with Miss
Rice and together they joined Cadets Bryant, Rutigliano,
and O’Keefe and their respective dates at the home of Cadet Bryant’s date. The young Americans did not return to
base until 5:00 a.m. the next day. As Meyer recorded ever
so succinctly, “We enjoyed ourselves too!”
It is not clear when the cadets actually slept but that
Friday, Aug. 13 would be the last in Vancouver. “We were
all present the next morning,” remembered Meyer in his
official history, to attend a farewell “coke” party hosted
at the home of Mrs. William Farrell where the Americans
bid goodbye to their young Canadian hostesses. That day,

the skies opened up with rains so hard that the cadets
remained at Sea Island Station all day. At 7 a.m. the next
morning, the cadets took off for Calgary and flew above
15,000 feet on oxygen over the Rockies to avoid a bad
storm front. Landing at RCAF Station Lincoln Park, the
cadets boarded a bus for Banff for a quick visit before
traveling to Calgary for a concluding grand ceremony and
banquet at Station Lincoln Park.
At the banquet that evening, Beau and other CAP dignitaries flew in to join the commander of the Royal Canadian
Air Cadets, Air Vice Marshal Kenneth M. Guthrie, and
ACLC dignitaries. All 24 American and 24 Canadian cadets
met and swapped stories. The CAP cadets presented the
Canadian cadets with CAP lapel insignia, sang songs, and
shared in the joy of the exchange. Guthrie presented a silver ash tray and Beau presented a traveler’s clock to each
of the cadets. After the formalities, the American and Canadian cadets returned to the barracks and commenced
exchanging additional articles of clothing and insignia.
Alas, all good things had to end. The morning of Aug.
15, wrote Meyer, “was the saddest morning of the tour,
because the two CAP (Eastern and Western) groups had

to return to the states.” For Edwards, the “Take-off from
Calgary was quite an emotional tug on all of us as it meant
not only leaving our many new Canadian friends, but also
the separation of the cadets again into eastern and western groups.” As the Station Lincoln Park band performed
for the takeoff for the Royal Canadian Air Cadets and as
the CAP Eastern Group taxied for takeoff back to Selfridge
AFB, the Western Group destined for Lowry AFB stood
in formation and rendered them a snappy salute. The
Eastern Group first arrived in Great Falls, Mont., to clear
Customs and shared lunch with the Montana Wing before
arriving in Minneapolis for dinner that evening. The next
afternoon, Aug. 16, the group arrived back at Selfridge
and the cadets disbanded to return home to their local
In the immediate aftermath of the exchange, Edwards
submitted a concluding letter to National Headquarters.
He reported to Beau how “As a whole, the trip was a huge
success though the pace was so rapid that many of our
cadets became satiated – were too tired to really grasp
in full the wonder of all we were shown.” He noted how
“Throughout the trip we found the Canadians extremely
cordial and gracious hosts; they simply couldn’t do enough

for us…” On a deeper level, Edwards recognized that the
Canadians exhibited a “universal acceptance of aviation in
Canada as a vitally necessary part of their daily lives and
the great enthusiasm of their civilians in all walks of life
for the movement sponsored by the Air Cadet League of
Canada.” Edwards further acknowledged that “We of the
CAP have a man-sized job on our hands if we are to arouse
a similar enthusiasm here.”
Together with his letter, Edwards provided a list of 18
suggestions for future CAP cadet exchanges. Many of the
recommendations revolved around uniforms. First on the
list, “National Headquarters should send each cadet chosen a copy of correct uniform and insignia regulations.”
Cadets should have four sets of slacks and shirts, purchase
a pair of plain dress oxfords for best wear, bring a pair
of sun glasses, have name badges, and be urged to take
regulation military uniform bags for easier stowage aboard
aircraft. Regarding the selected cadets, Edwards recommended that “Cadets chosen for the tour should have an
‘excellent’ rating in drill, military courtesy and discipline,
should be erect in posture, not overweight, and should be

of the average appearance of a seventeen-year-old lad.”
He added “social graces should also be considered inasmuch as a goodly portion of the program consists of social
activity in the company of the very finest people.”
Appropriately enough, Edwards kept notes on all 24 cadets.
He reported to Beau that overall, “Conduct throughout
the trip on the part of the cadets was excellent with one
exception,” the latter being Cadet William Jeffries of National Capital Wing who persistently reported late for mess
and formations and who exhibited a “superior attitude
toward the other cadets and not too well liked.” Of the
cadets overall, Cadet Stark received the greatest number of
complements on his appearance and military bearing, while
Cadets Phelps, Ottinger, O’Keefe, and Durnin received complements as well. In Edwards’s scrapbook, he observed how
Cadet Holsten of Ohio was “Inclined to be a loud mouth –
untidy and wrinkled uniform most of the time. Untidy room
also at Sea Island Base. Got along better after a talk. Gained
26 pounds and fell in love on the trip.” In comparison, Cadet
Reed of Indiana was “fine boy – pilot. Neat, military, cooperative – on the ball all the time.”

Additional administrative aspects of Edwards’s work included gathering information to help with future exchanges
and thanking the Canadian hosts. The cadets in turn were
provided names and addresses of the hosts to thank for the
hospitality. All of the young hostesses received a bouquet
of flowers and a thank you card. Various gifts were given to
some of the senior military and ACLC officials with whom
Edwards became acquainted with and he also sent every
host or hostess a personal letter. Cost-wise, Major Robert
A. Trennert at National Headquarters had issued Edwards
$500.00 for the tour. In addition to purchasing film, Edwards bought extra insignia, collar stays, and nametags for
the cadets as well as an iron to keep uniforms presentable.
Food, taxi fare, and small amounts of spending money for
the cadets made up the final expenditure of $422.21.
Edwards distributed 24 questionnaires to the cadets
and received 22 responses from which he compiled the
data for National Headquarters. The cadets gained an
average of six pounds and spent around $29 each on the
exchange. Of the three items on the tour that appealed
most to the cadets, the answers ran the gamut with some
obvious crowd favorites. Fishing and the Canadian ladies,
or as one cadet wrote, “the excellent selection of feminine
pulchritude,” were frequently listed. The dances, cruises,
tour of the cruiser Ontario, and visiting the cannery and
paper mill were also mentioned. In offering suggestions
for helping the ACLC plan the 1949 tour, cadets predominantly asked for more free time to handle a variety of
tasks. One requested less rich food at the banquets, more
opportunity to interact with “people of our own standing.
Less time with women and more recreation.” On a technical level, one cadet requested the carrying of parachutes
in Canadian aircraft if American cadets were going to be
aboard. To help CAP improve its portion of the tour, cadets
recommended advising cadets from southern states to
bring more warm clothing, issue cadets with fatigues and
heavy shoes, practice drill as a team, and the issuance of
uniforms for the tour to ensure uniformity in appearance.
One recommended that “Greater care should be taken in
the selection of American cadets, particularly as to table
manners, tact and intelligence. The accent in this tour
seemed to be on a rather thin veneer of glamour, to the
almost complete exclusion of other qualities.”

RCAC Itinerary
Eastern Group
July 31..................................RCAF Station Rockliffe, Ottawa
Aug. 1.................................................. Ottawa; Scott AFB, Ill.;

Carswell AFB, Texas
Aug. 2........................................................... Fort Worth, Texas
Aug. 3......................... Fort Worth, Texas; March AFB, Calif.
Aug. 4...........................................................March AFB, Calif.
Aug. 5................................ Warner Bros. Studio, Los Angeles
Aug. 6............................................Lockheed Aircraft Factory,
Burbank, Calif.
Aug. 7....................................................... Balboa Beach, Calif.
Aug. 8............................ March AFB and Mather AFB, Calif.
Aug. 9........................................................ Mather AFB, Calif.;
Oakland and San Francisco
Aug. 10-12.......................................................... San Francisco
Aug. 13......................Mather AFB, Calif.; Lowry AFB, Colo.
Aug. 14.......................... Lowry AFB, Colo.; Calgary, Alberta
Western Group
July 31......................................... RCAF Station Lincoln Park,
Calgary, Alberta
Aug. 1.......................................... Calgary; Lowry AFB, Colo.;
Carswell AFB, Texas
Aug. 2........................................................... Fort Worth, Texas
Aug. 3................................... Fort Worth; Maxwell AFB, Ala.;
Mitchell AFB, N.Y.
Aug. 4.......................................................... Mitchell AFB, N.Y.
Aug. 5............................Warner Bros. Studio, New York City
Aug. 6..............................................Republic Aircraft Factory,
Farmingdale, N.Y.
Aug. 7...................................Idlewild Airport, New York City
Aug. 8...................... Mitchell AFB, N.Y.; Andrews AFB, Md.
Aug. 9........................ Washington, D.C.; Mount Vernon, Va.
Aug. 10.................... Andrews AFB, Md.; Mitchell AFB, N.Y.
Aug. 11-12.................................................. Mitchell AFB, N.Y.
Aug. 13.............................Mitchell AFB, N.Y.; Scott AFB, Ill.;
Lowry AFB, Colo.
Aug. 14...........................Lowry AFB, Colo.; Calgary, Alberta

Regarding the fate of the 1948 CAP contingent, only
fragmentary information has been located. Edwards rose
to become the third Michigan Wing commander, serving
from 1951 to 1955 and then Great Lakes Region commander from 1957 to 1958. He died in 1971. Emerson
stayed in the Air Force and retired as a lieutenant colonel
in 1963. He passed away in 2004. Cadet Franklin R. Meyer
served as a first lieutenant in the U.S. Army Reserve,
earned a degree in mechanical engineering from Purdue University, and made his career as an engineer with
Sikorsky Aircraft. Cadet Merwyn O. Reed also graduated
from Purdue with an undergraduate and graduate degree

in forestry, serving as a civil servant with the U.S. Army
Corps of Engineers and the U.S. Forest Service. The whereabouts for 11 of Meyer’s peers have been unable to be
located. For the other 12 cadets, eight are deceased and
four appear to still be with us.
For those located that have gone west, here are a few
postscript details. Cadet George V. Crater served with the
U.S. Army in the Korean War and passed away in 1996.
Cadet Harry Nickolas graduated from the University of Wyoming and then spent a career with the Union Pacific Railroad as a foreman electrician at the roundhouse; he died
in 2015. Cadet Elwood A. Phelps also served in the Korean
War, albeit with the U.S. Air Force and passed in 1969. Cadet George A. Bradfute Jr. also served in the U.S. Air Force.
After studying electrical engineering at the Universities of
Minnesota and Tennessee, he worked for Sperry Rand and
the National Institutes of Health. Bradfute died in 2015.
Cadet Dushan Sumonia, who died in 2015, served in the
U.S. Air Force and U.S. Army as a cartographer, ending his
time with the Department of Defense at the Defense Mapping Agency Aerospace Center where he rose to Acting
Director. Cadet Michael H. O’Keefe became a prominent
lawyer and politician in Louisiana, culminating in the
presidency of the Louisiana State Senate in 1976. He was
convicted in 1983 of mail fraud and obstruction of justice
before receiving a pardon in 1986. After regaining his legal
license in 1989, he was permanently disbarred in 2000
for misconduct, a year after he was sentenced in 1999
to 19.5 years in prison for theft. He was released from
federal custody in 2016. Far more laudable is the career
of Cadet Oscar L. Shuler. He was drafted into the Army in
1953 and rose through the enlisted ranks before receiving
a commission. He retired as a lieutenant colonel in 1977
after two combat tours in the Vietnam War for which he
received multiple Distinguished Flying Crosses, Bronze
Stars, and Air Medals. He passed away in 2011.
The 1948 exchange proved a great success. Beau officially
commended Edwards for “an outstanding job in carrying
out all the details necessary to make such a program a
success.” In a personal letter of Sept. 8, 1948, George M.
Ross wrote to Edwards, congratulating him on his selection as the accompanying officer. “It was obvious to us

Escorts and Cadets
Eastern Group
Maj. Louis A. Edwards, CAP
Cadet Robert H. Hardy
Cadet John P. Rutigliano
Cadet Franklin R. Meyer
Cadet Charles A. Holsten Jr.
Cadet Merwyn O. Reed
Cadet Henry H. Bryant Jr.
Cadet George W. Durnin
Cadet George A. Bradfute Jr.
Cadet Floyd W. Hansen
Cadet Carl D.H. Stark
Cadet Philip M. Browning
Cadet William M. Jeffries

New Hampshire
New York
South Carolina
National Capital

Western Group
Capt. Emerson L. Armstrong, USAF
Cadet George Vance
Cadet Donald L. Hide
Cadet Charles D. Adams
Cadet John B. Harris
Cadet Elwood A. Phelps
Cadet George V. Crater
Cadet Oscar L. Shuler
Cadet Michael H. O’Keefe
Cadet Marvin G. Ottinger
Cadet Dushan Sumonia
Cadet Harry Nickolas
Cadet George W. Thompson


from the time you arrived that you not only enjoyed the
full confidence of the Cadets but created a fine impression
with everyone you met. Therefore, we can truly say you
played a big part in a very big enterprise.” In terms of the
overall exchange, Ross remarked how “I frankly do not
think we could have hoped for a finer result especially for
the initial operation.” The results indeed proved quite fine.
In 1949, the exchange expanded with American CAP cadets exchanged with their counterparts in Canada, France,
Great Britain, and Switzerland. The exchange continued to
expand thereafter and the International Air Cadet Exchange as we know it today emerged by the 1950s.

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