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CAP NHJ Volume 3, Issue 3 JUL-DEC 2016.pdf

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…a journal of
CAP history,
feature articles,
scholarly works,
and stories of

CAP National Historical Journal
Volume III, Issue III: JUL-DEC 2016

The Civil Air Patrol National Historical Journal is published quarterly by professional volunteer staff. As academic historians by trade,
we recognize the demand for quality publications reflecting a variety of interests to Civil Air Patrol readers, and strive to provide the
best in feature and thought provoking articles. We trust you will enjoy what the journal has to offer and will consider contributing to
the mission of our staff in providing a forum for the great traditions of our organization.

75th Anniversary Edition
75 Years of Civil Air Patrol:
A Chronology of Civil Air Patrol’s
Annual Reports to Congress,
Richard B. Mulanax, PhD.

Lt Col, CAP
Research Division Head, National History Staff

The wartime Civil Air Patrol was patterned after the
British Royal Air Force’s Royal Auxiliary Air Force (RAuxAF,
1947), although unlike the RAuxAF, Civil Air Patrol did not
directly participate in combat missions. The Royal Air
Force Air Cadet program and the Air Cadets of Canada
were models for the CAP Cadet Program.


With the establishment of a separate Air Force in


former War Department (now Department of the Army)

obert Neprud wrote Flying Minutemen shortly
after the end of World War II, at a time when many

Americans, including Civil Air Patrol members, wondered
if CAP had a peacetime role, or if it should follow the






commanders met in January 1946 and decided that CAP
did in fact have a peacetime mission. This understanding
on the part of CAP leadership directly motivated them to
petition Congress to charter the Civil Air Patrol as a civilian
corporation with a non-combatant role to support the
United States Army Air Forces.

September 1947, Civil Air Patrol was transferred from the

to the new Department of the Air Force, and Public Law
80-557 formalized in legislation what had begun in 1947:
Civil Air Patrol now became the official civilian Auxiliary to
the United States Air Force. This was tacit Air Force
recognition of Civil Air Patrol’s peacetime role as part of
the Air Force team.CAP would have three primary
missions of Operations, Cadet Programs, and Aviation
Education. Over time, these evolved into the Civil Air
Patrol’s modern mission triad of Emergency Services,
Cadet Programs, and Aerospace Education.


As Civil Air Patrol struggled between 1946 and 1948 to

German submarines (U-Boats) began a very successful

establish its civilian role in support of the Air Force, the

campaign against not only trans-Atlantic shipping, but

Air Force, decided to mount a public relations campaign

American coastal shipping and shipping to and from Latin

in support of Civil Air Patrol. One aspect of this campaign

America. This placed immense pressure on the capacity

led the Air Force Director of Public Relations to assign Mr.

of the American economy in terms of war production—

Neprud the task of writing a wartime history of CAP that

especially in the shipment of vital resources such as oil.

ended with a chapter about the future role of the Civil Air

For this reason, Henry Sinclair and other oilmen actively

Patrol. This project resulted in the Flying Minutemen,

supported efforts by the newly formed Civil Air Patrol to

which was initially published by the Air Force, but as a

fill in the gap left by the lack of suitable equipment and

public document, was privately printed and sold publicly.

personnel to patrol the coast. The Navy reluctantly


lying Minutemen was reprinted in 1988 by the Civil

accepted this provision, but was skeptical of the ability of
civilians to sufficiently support the coastal patrol mission.

Air Patrol with an additional chapter written by

former CAP Chief Historian Lester Hopper. In Chapter 15,

Whatever the perception, use of civilian air resources

Col Hopper commented on some of the changes in CAP

significantly reduced the number of ships sunk off the

between 1948 and 1988, and included a new Appendix C

United States coastline by the Germans. By 1943, the U-

listing 1988 National, Region, and Wing Commanders, as

Boat threat had diminished to the point that the coastal

well as key members and officials of National

patrol mission was terminated. The Coastal Patrol was the

Headquarters. This volume will have four chapters

core of CAP’s Operations mission element, and was

summarizing key events from 1948 to 2016, the 75th

expanded during the war to include other inland missions

Anniversary of Civil Air Patrol, as well as updated

in support of the Armed Forces.


Civil Air Patrol was born in the maelstrom of World War
II. As a consequence of America’s lack of air-power
preparedness, aviation and naval resources were quickly
overwhelmed in the first two years of the war. Despite the
fact that the nation was protected by a barrier of oceans
per se, time to mobilize was critical, and the coastal areas
were immediately vulnerable. Both the Army (which

Command & Staff
National Commander
Maj Gen Joseph R. Vazquez
Chief Historian
Col Frank A. Blazich Jr.
National Historical Editor
Lt Col Richard B. Mulanax
National Historical Journal Editor
Maj Kurt Efinger

included what became the Army Air Forces) and the Navy
lacked resources to adequately patrol and defend
thousands of miles of vulnerable coastline.


he Army Air Forces (USAAF), created in 1942, was

pamphlet dropping, mock air raids, aerial exhibitions for

much more enthusiastic about the Cadet Mission

public relations purposes, and searches for lost planes

created 1 Oct 1942 as there was a critical manpower need

and persons. (Civil Air Patrol Handbook, 1944 Edition)

for the forces and CAP Cadets entered the USAAF in large
numbers during the war. Cadet membership was open to


youth ages 15 to 18 meeting Armed Forces physical

The Cold War largely determined the direction of the Civil

fitness requirements. It offered the Cadets the

Air Patrol between 1946 and 1991. The Soviet Union had

opportunity to obtain aviation training, and subsequently

aircraft capable of deploying nuclear weapons in the late

enlist in an aviation force. Volunteers were no longer

1940s, often cloning American bombers such as the B-29.

accepted after 1942, as all needs were filled by

Prototypes came into their possession at the end of

involuntary Conscription and Assignment as needed by

World War II when American crews bombing Japanese

the Armed Forces. (The Civil Air Patrol Handbook, 1944

targets were forced to make emergency landings in Soviet

Edition, Southern Flight Services, Dallas, TX)

territory. Since the Soviets did not enter the war against
Japan until just before it ended, they interned crews and

These precedents of the Operations mission element,

planes and had every opportunity to disassemble and

Cadet Mission element, and by extension of senior

analyze captured aircraft.

member and cadet training, the Aviation (later
Aerospace) Education mission offered an opportunity
during the War for civilians to contribute to national
defense in a meaningful way, and visionary CAP leaders
saw an opportunity to serve the nation after the War.


s a result of successful espionage targeting the
United States, by 1949, the Soviet Union had

established its own nuclear program. By the early 1950s,
the stakes were raised by the development of hydrogen
bombs and long range bombers on both sides. In

Concerning the role of cadets, The Civil Air Patrol

response, Civil Defense, with assistance from the Civil Air

Handbook, 1944 Edition, reads:

Patrol, developed a Ground Observer Corps to spot

“The principal aim of the CAP Cadet Program will
be to train young peoples for services in the US
Army Air Forces.”





obsolete, given the speed and altitude of the new aircraft,
but it followed the traditional logic of the time.

This continued to be the newly formed Air Force’s primary

At the end of World War II, both the Americans and the

interest, out of three mission elements in Civil Air Patrol,

Soviets captured German rocket engineers and put them

for some time after the war. CAP activities in 1944

to work developing long range missiles capable of

consisted of the Southern Liaison Patrol (border patrol),

carrying nuclear weaponry. This led to the Atlas missile

forest fire patrol, courier service for the Army Air Forces,

program and later to the Minuteman family of missiles, as

Red Cross support, aerial monitoring of blackouts,

well as submarine launched nuclear warheads. As a

consequence, the Ground Observer Corps became

astronaut, Yuri Gagarin. These actions on the part of the

obsolete, and increased the importance of the Air Force

Soviet Union galvanized Americans, and prompted the

missile mission at the expense of the bomber mission.

United States to become the first nation to land a man on

Consequently, the Air Force focused more on the value of

the Moon in 1969.

the Cadet Program to the force than any other element
of Civil Air Patrol’s mission from that point forward.

American politicians immediately decried the lack of
sufficient scientific research and education in the USA,

The Korean War, beginning in 1950, caused the Air Force

which resulted in a tremendous expansion of science and

to rethink this position. Almost all Air Rescue Services

math education - known today as STEM. This led CAP to

assets were transferred to Japan and Korea in support of

expand what was now being termed Aerospace Education

American Forces involved in the war. The Air Force

as part of cadet training (Internal Education), and to more

mobilized CAP to “fill in the gap,” and search & rescue

aggressively address AE with the public (External

took on a new importance in the eyes of the Air Force.


After the cease-fire, the Air Force was more interested in
CAP’s contribution to Air Force Search & Rescue (SAR)

The three core missions evolved into Emergency Services,

missions, and so SAR became the core of Emergency

especially SAR and Communications, Cadet Programs,

Services through the end of the Cold War in 1991.

and Aerospace Education. After the end of the Cold War,
CAP considered new horizons in a changing world.

At various times in its history, CAP leaders evaluated







CAP’s contribution to the Air Force. Air Force leaders

involvement in major catastrophes such as hurricanes,

always viewed CAP through the lens of how can CAP assist

floods, tornadoes, earth quakes and major forest fires—

the Air Force in successfully completing its mission, not

in other words, a focus on natural disaster assistance.

necessarily what CAP believes its mission should be.

Cadet Programs had grown with increased AE,
encampments, the International Air Cadet Exchange, drill


lthough the Space Race began immediately after

competitions, and other special programs. Aerospace

World War II, much of America’s military space

Education expanded dramatically both within CAP and

programs were kept under tight security and public

with the public.

knowledge was limited. Americans were familiar with
civilian space programs and former German space

These programs built upon the foundations laid during

scientists such as Werner von Braun. This changed with

World War II, but took new directions in response to

the Soviet launch of Sputnik in 1957. Americans were

world events. World War II dominated the first five years,

shocked that the Russians launched the first artificial

followed by the Cold War of forty-seven years, and the

satellite into space, followed by the launching of rockets

twenty years since the end of the Cold War. During its 75-

with canine passengers into space and finally the first

year history, Civil Air Patrol operated in an environment

in which natural disasters, man-made disasters, and
terrorism were the norm. CAP will continue to evolve in
response to national and world events, often in ways that
were never anticipated in earlier years.

Note on sources for the narrative in this section: Unless
otherwise indicated by a note in the text, the Annual Report for
the year given in the text at the beginning of each section
indicates that the Annual Report for that year is the source of
the information. Many highlights and innovations over the years
addressed are included in the narrative to provide a picture of
how CAP developed over time; but all events of importance
cannot be included in a single chapter. Some years, events, and
programs may not be included for this reason, although CAP
continued to provide valuable service in all areas during this
time. Please refer to the appropriate Annual Report for the
complete story on all facts listed in the narrative. The reports
are available online at:

The history of major events in the life of Civil Air Patrol are
contained in a valuable resource: Years of Annual Reports
to Congress and Financial Reports. These reports were
submitted by successive National Commanders. During
the early Cold War, the National Commanders were
always active duty Air Force officers, usually general
officers, and were assisted by a National Board under a
Chairman, who while serving, was the highest-ranking
member of the Civil Air Patrol. Under the terms of CAP’s
Charter, they were required to submit an Annual Report
on the state of CAP. This chapter is based largely on
information contained in these Annual Reports.
In 1946, Congress incorporated Civil Air Patrol (CAP) as a
flying organization to allow civilian volunteers to support
military and civil aviation, to provide aviation education,

and to provide public assistance in emergencies. CAP
received a Congressional charter of incorporation, which
was accomplished by the passage of Public Law 476.
In 1947, Air Force Chief of Staff General Carl Spaatz called
together a conference of Air Force and CAP leaders to
make recommendations on the future of CAP in the postwar climate. This led to the designation of CAP as the
official Auxiliary of the United States Air Force in 1948.
Maj Gen Lucas Beau was appointed National Commander
of Civil Air Patrol. Col Nancy Tier of Connecticut Wing
became the first CAP Wing Commander. CAP dedicated
itself to three critical missions: flying its own civilian
aircraft with civilian pilots in support of Air Force missions;
training a cadet corps for careers in aviation; and
encouraging an interest in aviation amongst the American
public. (Author’s note: these three missions today are
Emergency Services, Cadet Programs and Aerospace
The Air Force’s Air Rescue Service (ARS) and CAP agreed
that CAP would augment ARS whenever needed for
search and rescue. The Air Force was authorized to pay
for aviation fuel and related flight maintenance in support
of Air Force authorized missions. CAP would establish a
communications network in all 51 wings that existed at
the time (Author’s note: one in each state, and one in the
Territory of Hawaii; Alaska Wing became the 50th Wing in
May 1948, followed later by Puerto Rico Wing and
National Capital Wing by 1950). The Air Force provided
each wing with at least one high-powered radio, in
addition to surplus radios as they became available. The
Air Force allocated CAP two dedicated radio frequencies,
and CAP requested ten more. Over 500 CAP radio stations
went into operation this year.
The Air Force approved Air Medals for CAP aircrew
members who flew the same number of World War II
missions necessary for Army Air Forces pilots to earn the
The Air Force transferred 220 L-4 aircraft to CAP for cadet
orientation flights. Cadet membership was deliberately
limited because of a shortage of senior members to

supervise the program and because of equipment
shortages. CAP policy was to admit cadets to the program
CAP sponsored a nationwide cadet air modeling
competition. National winners competed in an
encampments were held on Air Force bases. Thirty-five
hundred cadets attended. Contact was made with the Air
Cadet League of Canada and CAP anticipated many
common activities in the future. CAP and Canadian cadets
met in New York City for their first drill competition. This
focused attention on America’s close links with Canada.
The US and Canada invited British Air Cadets to
participate the next year. (Author’s note: This was the
beginning of the International Cadet Exchange, later the
International Air Cadet Exchange, as well as the
International Drill Competition)
National Commander Maj Gen Beau predicted that
“…CAP would continue to contribute to the strength and
security of this nation.”
In 1948, Public Law 557 established Civil Air Patrol as the
official civilian Auxiliary of the United States Air Force.
Previously, CAP was the official civilian Auxiliary of the
United States Army Air Forces.
In January, 1948, the Air Force in cooperation with CAP
published Flying Minutemen, which sold 16,000 copies in
its first year.
Former Air Force Chief of Staff General Carl Spaatz was
named Chairman of the CAP National Board (Author’s
note: …and remained so until 1959).
The 1949 Annual Report defined CAP as a light plan airforce performing ground missions in support of military
and civilian emergencies. Emergency Services remained a
core mission, and included SAR and Communication.
However, the Cadet Program was viewed by the National
Commander (and therefore by the Air Force) as the main
CAP mission. Cadets were expected to provide recruits for
the Air Force, augment Senior Members in ES, help AE
through promotion of civil aviation in the community, and

provide recruits for Civil Defense. Aside from providing
these services to others, cadets were to benefit from
character building training in CAP. The Certificate of
Proficiency was approved for CAP Cadets this year, and
was meant to lead to a transition to Senior Member status
(The Cadet Program Fact Sheet, February 1994, by Col
Leonard Blascovich, CAP).
The International Cadet Exchange (ICE), later the
International Air Cadet Exchange (IACE), was initiated by
Gen Carl Spaatz and Maj Gen Lucas Beau. General Spaatz
was the first Chief of Staff of the United States Air Force,
and was Chairman of the National Board of CAP from his
retirement from the Air Force in 1948 until 1959. Maj Gen
Beau was National Commander. The participating nations
that year were the USA, France, and Britain. Canada
joined shortly thereafter. The United States and Canada
also created the International Drill Competition. Thirtyfour cadets were transported by the Air Force on a
goodwill Marshall Plan Tour of Europe.
CAP expanded aeronautics courses into high schools.
Squadron training now included aviation fundamentals.
The Annual Report for this year stated: “The purpose of
the Civil Air Patrol Educational Program is to teach the
theories of flying….” CAP’s goal was to recruit 100,000
cadets. This would have matched World War II levels, but
were never achieved again in the history of the
In 1950, CAP was preparing for war in Korea. CAP leaders
saw the recruiting goal of 100,000 cadets as a wartime
imperative. It resumed coastal and border patrols and
provided light aircraft support for the Air Force. Search
and Rescue (SAR) training also increased as part of a new
program called SARCAP, which provided USAF
supervision. CAP was kept in a constant state of readiness
to support war related missions. After the US entered the
war, cadet membership nearly doubled, and 24
encampments were held with 3000 cadets.
The CAP Chaplain program was initiated to provide an
ethical dimension to CAP cadet training. It started with
the appointment of an Air Force chaplain to National
Headquarters, and expanded to 200 CAP chaplains by the

end of the year. Chaplains provided individual counseling
and ethics training to cadets, especially at encampments
and with International Cadet Exchange. Protestant,
Jewish, and Roman Catholic chaplains participated.
In 1951, CAP continued to support Air Rescue Service
within the Continental United States (CONUS), since most
ARS units were deployed to the Far East in support of the
war. Because of Chinese and Soviet support for the North
Koreans against American sponsored South Korea, the
United States went on alert fearing possible attacks
against the homeland. This was still the age of the longrange bomber, and the CAP Cadet Ground Observer
Corps augmented radar and military observers in
monitoring the skies. By the end of the decade, bombers
could no longer be tracked by ground observers unless
they had the use of radar. Ground and submarine based
missiles replaced bombers as the primary
attack/response force in the US arsenal. This combination
of ground and submarine missiles, along with bombers,
came to be called the “Triad of nuclear defense.”
Cadet membership increased to 43,000 early in the war,
but decreased with the cessation of hostilities and
armistice of 1953. The ICE expanded to 15 countries, and
the International Drill Competition expanded as well.
Encampments were held at 26 locations around the
Females in CAP numbered 13,000 out of 77,000
members. There were 8,430 female cadets, and 4,570
female senior members.
The Commander of ARS commended CAP for its wartime
support, which enabled ARS to divert resources in support
of the Korean War, with CAP taking responsibility for
search and rescue in the Continental United States. CAP
also signed an agreement with the US Office of Civil
Defense to support state civil defense agencies with
Mobile Support Units that would provide air supply,
evacuation, and reconnaissance.
Public Laws 152 and 557 removed the authority of the
Secretary of the Air Force to donate surplus equipment to
CAP before offering it to other Federal agencies. This

negatively impacted CAP’s ability to receive surplus
equipment from the Air Force.
The CAP Mobile Communications capability proved
essential for the operations of state and local civil defense
authorities. CAP, however, was limited by its inability to
receive surplus radio equipment from the Armed Forces.
CAP recruited 350 chaplains. The first CAP Chaplain
Conference was at Bolling Air Force Base in March.
Civil Air Patrol’s big three cadet programs this year were
encampments on Air Force bases, the International Cadet
Exchange, and drill competitions.
In 1952, the National Commander restated CAP’s mission:
“The missions of Civil Air Patrol as “the volunteer
civilian auxiliary of the United States Air Force”
are divided into three main categories: certain
non-combatant operational missions as directed
by the Secretary of the Air Force; maintenance of
a pool of carefully selected cadets trained in
ground and preflight subjects as a source of
personnel procurement for the Air Force; and
maintenance of a program of aviation education
for America’s youth together with general
aviation education of the public.”
Prior to the Korean War, National Commanders identified
military recruitment of cadets as not only the primary
purpose of the Cadet Program, but suggested that it was
the primary mission of CAP. With the reliance on CAP to
support the ARS during the war, Air Force priorities
concerning CAP shifted more towards Emergency
Services. Later Annual Reports often rotated the order in
which the three missions were presented in order to
provide a more equitable presentation of the three core
CAP missions.

CAP owned 311 corporate aircraft, and operated 486
aircraft on loan from the Air Force. Unfortunately, many
of the planes were in need of repair, and funds were
neither adequate, nor readily available to keep them

operational. As the Air Force fleet moved to larger
propeller planes and increasingly to jet aircraft, suitable
planes became less and less available for loan or transfer
to CAP.

CAP was actively involved in communications support of
emergency services during, and in the aftermath of
Hurricane Hazel. CAP’s mobile capability was essential in
an environment when normal landlines were inoperable.

CAP sponsored the first annual National Aviation
Education Workshop at the University of Colorado. This
program was designed to orient school teachers to
aviation, and 114 teachers attended. In addition to
classroom presentations, they participated in several
educational enrichment activities, including one 3000mile roundtrip visit to Eglin Air Force Base, Florida.

In 1955, CAP initiated two national scholarships for cadets
to attend college. Each was a grant of $4000 for a cadet
to attend the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for
four years.

CAP continued to move away from ground radio stations
to mobile stations. In 1952, the ratio of mobile to ground
stations was 9:1, from a 1951 ratio of 5:1. Less than 15
percent of CAP aircraft were equipped with VHF radios.
CAP also created a standardized communications training
program for greater efficiency in operating the radio
In 1953, CAP was asked to initiate a program of aircraft
wreckage marking so they would not be mistaken for
previously lost aircraft. The Air Force authorized CAP to
participate in one state-wide Civil Defense exercise per
year. Pennsylvania Wing founded the first CAP-Air Force
Ground Rescue School.
The Air Force authorized CAP senior members to enroll in
the Air University Extension Course Institute for newly
appointed CAP officers without military experience, to
provide the essential knowledge necessary for them to
perform their duties.
The Air Force funded nine civilian technicians to maintain
CAP radios used in Air Force missions. Some wings also
received funding from state authorities, and this
dramatically improved their ability to perform their
mission. CAP had 7500 operational radios in the network.
In 1954, the Air Defense Command of the
continued to operate a Ground Observer
350,000 volunteers. As previously noted, this
gradually phased out over the next ten
technology made ground observers obsolete.

Air Force
Corps of
force was
years as

The Cadet Program was restructured to link cadet
promotions to the Cadet Training Program. Promotions
were now linked to each of the three phases of training.
The first CAP Jet Orientation Course was offered at
Tyndall AFB, Florida.
In 1956, in response to the Soviet emphasis on aviation
education for students, CAP resolved the following:
1. Make CAP cadet membership open to all
American youth. This was a change from previous
policies which were highly selective in World War
II, and moderately selective afterwards.
2. Expand scholarships in aeronautical engineering.
3. Provide cadets with basic flight instruction.
4. Expand the high school AE program.
Thirty-one colleges offered AE workshops. CAP also
supported 99 high school AE workshops. CAP ended its
three-year project of providing squadrons with the
Official CAP Model Building Kit.
The ratio of fixed to mobile radio stations was now about
equal. CAP planned to return to its program of giving
priority to mobile stations.
The Air Force substantially cut back ARS activities in the
CONUS and transferred responsibility for CONUS search
and rescue to the Continental Air Command. Previously,
ARS evaluated SARCAPs (training exercises evaluated by
National Headquarters); now CAP personnel assumed
responsibility. Authority to request search missions
transferred from Headquarters Command USAF to Air
Force Major Air Command commanders. CAP anticipated
a dramatic increase in CONUS search and rescue missions.

In 1957, the first article on the first page of the Annual
Report noted that the Soviet Union launched the first
artificial satellite into space on 7 October 1957. It noted
that the US was also working to do so.

cadets with the latest information on aerospace
technology. A separate Jet Age Orientation course was set
up for female cadets. One female cadet from each wing
could be nominated for the course.

CAP participated in Operation Moonwatch, a program
designed to teach ground observers how to monitor
satellite over-flights. Sputnik caused an academic panic,
as politicians and educators asked why the Soviets were
“first.” CAP leaders, along with the American public,
concluded that there was a STEM gap in American
education, and that we had fallen behind the Soviets in
AE. No consideration was given to the fact that German
engineers working in the Soviet Union were at the center
of Soviet rocket science; the American response was
focused more on the quantity of AE rather than the

In March, the Army Times Publishing Company began
distributing CAP TIMES to the membership. Circulation
was 42,000.

In 1958, CAP’s aircraft accident ratio was 1:18; the
national light plane average was 1:15. The major cause
was pilot error. CAP participated in Phototrack, a project
to monitor earth satellite movements.
CAP authorized appointment of Aerospace Education
officers at region, wing, and squadron levels. A national
recruitment effort to find AE officers for these positions

In 1960, CAP wing commanders were authorized to sign
agreements on behalf of the Civil Air Patrol to cooperate
and assist Civil Defense authorities at state and local
levels. These agreements would outline services CAP
would provide in the event of an emergency. CAP’s radio
net had 14,000 stations.
An Emergency Services category of membership was
authorized. It was designed to recruit experienced pilots
who were willing to fly search and rescue missions, but
who chose not to participate in other CAP activities. CAP
authorized the first Silver and Bronze Medals of Valor for
WATCAP, the CAP World Aerospace Education Air Tour,
was a traveling AE workshop that visited leading aviation
centers around the world. CAP published two new AE
books this year, Aerospace Age Science and The Dawning
Space Age.

Headquarters CAP-USAF was assigned to Continental Air
Command from Headquarters Command, effective 1 Jan
In 1959, CAP National Headquarters was moved in August
to Ellington AFB, Texas. CAP also created an Office of
Safety at National Headquarters. This followed the
cataclysmic record in aircraft accidents the previous year.
CAP flew 57 Air Force authorized missions, and 14 Coast
Guard authorized missions.
Region headquarters conducted radio nets weekly. It
provided up to date information on CAP programs and
activities within each region.
The Dawning of the Space Age, a textbook for the Cadet
Program, was published. It was designed to provide

CAP FILE PHOTO: President John F. Kennedy, Gen. Carl Spaatz (USAF
Retired), and Col. Daniel Boone, CAP.


LATER COLD WAR, 1961-1991
In 1961, newly elected President John Kennedy wrote
about CAP:
“Civil Air Patrol volunteers play a vital role in the
life of our country. In the past decades, their skills
and dedication to duty have saved many
hundreds of lives and guided thousands of our
young people toward useful and productive
activity. Every American can be proud of Civil Air
Patrol’s record of distinguished service to
communities and in the nation.”
The Office of Civil Defense issued CAP a national
Emergency Mission assignment in recognition of its
contributions over the years to emergency services.
CAP adopted a Long-Range Plan to inspire the future
development of the organization. By 1966, CAP hoped to
have 100,000 cadets and 60,000 senior members; 10,000
aircraft and 23,000 pilots; and written agreements
between every CAP wing and its state Civil Defense
The Colorado Wing All-Girl Drill Team won the National
All-girl Drill Team Competition.
In 1962, the training goal for all cadets was to obtain their
Certificate of Proficiency (COP), which was expected to
take from 18 to 24 months. 1,911 COPs were awarded.
Only COP recipients are allowed to apply for CAP special
activities. Female cadets were officially designated as
cadettes. Two cadettes per wing were authorized to
exchange with other cadettes into other wings either in
their region or another region. The Space Age Orientation
Course was offered at Chanute AFB, Illinois.
CAP was granted authority by ARS to expand searches
into fringe areas in adjacent Canada and Mexico when
participating in Air Force authorized missions. ARS already
had authorization from Canada and Mexico to do so, and
CAP was granted this privilege as an extension of the ARS

CAP displayed its National Aerospace Education Exhibit at
the annual convention of the American Association of
School Administrators. More than 25,000 educators also
viewed the exhibit at the National Catholic Educational
Association meeting. Eighteen Aerospace Education
academic scholarships worth $15,000 each were
awarded to CAP cadets.
The revised CAP Long Range Plan called for 100,000
cadets and 65,000 senior members by 1967. Each wing
was given a proportional goal as part of this plan based on
population, rated pilots and aircraft in the state. CAP
could expect no surplus military aircraft before 1966.
President Kennedy received a lifetime membership in
In 1963, California, Ohio, Colorado, and Alaska led CAP in
search and rescue missions. A uniform plan for CAP-Civil
Defense Cooperation was developed by National
Headquarters. This was intended to be the foundation for
more active involvement by CAP in civil defense.
The downward trend of cadet membership in the late
1950s was reversed by 1963. Cadet membership
increased to 49,051, of which 10,188 were females, and
38,863 were males. Thirty-seven air force bases hosted
The Aerospace Age Orientation for female cadets only
was held at Maxwell AFB, Alabama. Medical,
administrative, and technical opportunities in CAP and
the Air Force were highlighted.
CAP conducted 189 AE workshops for educators.
Centralized testing for CAP members was implemented
the year before, and statistics on participation were now
available so that the system could be evaluated.
A five-phase program of Senior Member Training and a
four-phase program of Cadet Training was implemented.


In 1964, CAP had a record membership of 86,473. CAP
received 78 T-34 aircraft from the Air Force, which CAP
refurbished. CAP flew 63% of all SAR sorties nationwide.
The FAA conducted the first ever FAA Academy for CAP
The new four-phase Cadet Program was introduced. The
first Spaatz Award was presented to Douglas Roach. In the
Senior Program, the new five-phase program
commenced in April.

Civil Air Patrol in the Later Cold War Years,
1965-91: CAP Matures
In 1965, the first National Flight Program was offered at
the CAP Cadet Flying Encampment at Elmira, New York. It
comprised courses in powered flight, glider pilot, and
soaring orientation.
CAP flew 69% of hours flown on rescue missions which
translated into 265 rescue missions. This was a significant
decrease in missions over the previous two years. In
Communications, mobile radios once again exceeded
fixed stations. CAP and the Federal Aviation
Administration (FAA) reached an agreement in which an
FAA representative would attend all CAP National
Executive Committee meetings.

closely with the FAA in conducting training courses for
pilots and mechanics. The ratio of mobile to ground radio
stations was 2:1, with a total of over $10,000 stations.
Because of Air Force commitments in Southeast Asia, CAP
participation in the IACE was cancelled this year, except
for an exchange with Canada. In the Senior Member
Training Program, awards were added to the program as
an incentive to complete the Program.
In 1967, CAP initiated the Associate Member (Family)
Flying Program. This allowed family members not eligible
for membership to participate in CAP orientation flights.
A CAP sponsored program of student flight instruction
was initiated for senior members and cadets utilizing CAP
aircraft. Two Congressmen formed CAP’s Congressional
Squadron. It would be a fully operational unit.
New Cadet Programs for 1967 included the Advanced Jet
Familiarization Course, the CAP Cadet Leadership School,
and the Power-Solo Cadet Flying Encampment, which
included 12 hours of flying time.

Two hundred six AE workshops were conducted and over
32,000 school teachers received AE training.

In 1968, CAP membership declined relative to the nation’s
population increase and the increase in qualified pilots.
The CAP corporate fleet also declined. In response, CAP
developed another Long-Range Plan, for 1969-1973.
CAP’s Long Term Plan called, among other plans, for a
permanent National Headquarters building for CAP. It
also noted a shortage of Chaplains in the organization.

Senior member training increased dramatically under the
new Senior Member Training Program (SMTP). There was
a 500% increase in Senior Member COPs.

With decreased human and material resources, CAP was
called upon to provide responses to increased civilian
aviation activity. CAP flew 537 missions, with 78 saves.

CAP Chaplains expended 40,000 man-hours as part of
their program. They had over half a million direct contacts
with CAP members. CAP arranged for 100 cadets to
attend the USAF Spiritual Life Conference hosted by the
Air Force Chief of Chaplains.

CAP initiated a program to modernize 5,000 CAP radio
stations by 1973. Costs were estimated at $200 to $1000
per set, and totaled $1.75 million.

In 1966, CAP flew 70% of Air Force authorized rescue
missions, and made 40% of the finds, more than any other
agency. CAP’s operational costs were 4% of the cost of
operating Air Force aircraft. CAP continued to work

The first Senior Member National Staff College was
initiated at Maxwell AFB, Alabama, during the summer.
One hundred forty-three members graduated. CAP
leaders decided that this would be a permanent program.


National Commander Maj Gen Walter Putnam named the
Apollo 8 astronauts the Apollo 8 Squadron of CAP.
The Cadet Flying Program was offered at four locations.
Private pilot training was offered to 110 Cadets and
training through completion of the first solo flight to 540
Cadets. New cadet programs included the Nurse
Orientation Course, Communications/Electronics Course,
Air Force Academy Survival Course, and the Stewardess
Orientation Course. The Air Force also offered CAP three
spaces per year at the Air Force Academy Preparatory
School for Cadets who achieved the Mitchell Award or
higher, and three per year at the Officer Training School
for Cadets who achieved the Spaatz Award. The
Aerospace Career Counseling Seminar was offered at
Maxwell AFB, Alabama, to cadets interested in a career in
For the fourth year, the Air Force Chief of Chaplains
sponsored the Spiritual Life Conference for CAP Cadets.
The CAP Chaplain Service initiated the first National
Laboratory on Ministry to Youth. The intent was to find
ways to bridge the generation gap which was discussed
frequently in the public media.
Two cadets participated in the National Science
Foundation’s Annual Scientific Expedition to Antarctica.
For ten weeks, they assisted scientists in gathering
biological data from marine and amphibious animals.
The Air Reserve Personnel Center activated the 928th Air
Reserve Squadron at Denver, Colorado, to manage
reservists assigned to CAP. This resulted in 1,100 new
reservists assigned to support CAP.
CAP Col Lyle Castle, Chairman of the National Board, was
promoted to Brig Gen, becoming the first CAP general
In 1969, CAP flew a record number of hours in support of
Emergency Services missions related to hurricanes,
floods, blizzards, and tornadoes.
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) modified
its rules to allow the Air Force and CAP to share

frequencies during actual missions (integrated circuits).
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) integrated CAP
into state and region defense airlift plans.
Author’s note: Beginning with the 1971 Annual Report
(AR), the Annual Reports are numbered for the year of
issue, rather than the year they highlighted. This means
that the 1971 Annual Report, published in 1971, was
about 1970, and so on through the succeeding years. This
and subsequent chapters will reference the year written
about, not the year published.
During 1970, CAP offered two new categories of
membership. Business membership was offered to
companies and business in the aviation industry. Similarly,
general aviation membership was offered to pilots in the
general aviation industry who want to assist in missions
CAP initiated a national program of POW/MIA awareness,
for which it was commended by the Air Force Association.
Ellington AFB, Texas, hosted the Manned Space
Orientation Program for cadets. Ellington AFB was in close
proximity to NASA flight management facilities.
CAP Emergency Services responded to Hurricanes Celia
and Ella in Texas, as well as floods in North Dakota and
Puerto Rico. Conversions of radios to single sideband
continued to support such missions. More than 2400
radios were upgraded this year.
During 1971, the National Commander, Air Force Brig Gen
Richard Ellis, commented on the effect of world affairs on
Civil Air Patrol. He noted that in foreign countries…
“…the image of America is often distorted by a
stream of depressing and embarrassing news
concerning the United States. This is not
surprising. In this country, bad news also get
more exposure because it is more spectacular.
But the average foreigner does not see the other
side of the coin. Rarely is he able to visit here, talk
with those who have, or meet an American in
person. As a result, the average American is

pictured as struggling through a way of life
dominated by pollution, racial strife,
unemployment, clogged highways, student
unrest, crime in the streets, and political
General Ellis saw the solution as the IACE. Foreign cadets
get a better view of Americans when they come to the
United States, and cadets going to foreign countries are
“ambassadors of good will”.
Priority number one for the Cadet Program was to get
cadets into the cockpit and flying. Over 500 cadets were
awarded flight badges.
CAP implemented the modified Cadet Program. It
centered on four basic areas: aerospace education,
leadership, physical fitness, and moral leadership. Cadets
completed 15 achievement packets in sequence to satisfy
the requirements of the program. Completion of all 15
achievements allowed the cadet to take the Spaatz Award
examination. Other parts of the program were completed
at unit meetings.
Top priority in AE was the promotion of AE in the public
schools. CAP participated in 200 AE workshops attended
by more than 30,000 teachers.
CAP contributed 787 man-days in support of Emergency
Services missions responding to floods, blizzards, forest
fires, earthquakes, hurricanes, holiday traffic surveillance
and emergency blood transport. CAP had 18,000 radio
stations in operation, and completed the upgrade to
single sideband, with 3250 SSB radios operating.
CAP offered the National Search and Rescue School at
Governor’s Island, New York. CAP members participated
in nine flying clinics offered by CAP, the FAA, and the
Airplane Owners and Pilots Association.
The CAP Chaplain Service had 1,000 chaplains assigned,
as well as 300 visiting chaplains.

authorized missions and 36 other requests for assistance.
Twenty-eight lives were saved, 100 persons evacuated,
and CAP provided assistance to 1,000 people. CAP
responded to Tropical Storm Agnes, which ravaged the
Atlantic coastline from Florida to New York. CAP
conducted the longest search in its history, 39 days of
intensive searching for a plane carrying House Majority
Leader Hale Boggs, US Representative Nick Begich, and
one other person. The plane was never found.
Aerospace Rescue and Recovery Service created a new
Mission Coordinator Course for CAP. CAP and the Defense
Civil Preparedness Agency jointly sponsored a new
training program in radiological monitoring for CAP
personnel. CAP provided Pilot Upgrade Training to over
1,000 CAP pilots. CAP also initiated a program to convert
from AM to FM on VHF frequencies.
CAP developed a new Senior Member Training Program
which included three phases: Level 1 Orientation, Level II
Specialization Training, and Level III Staff and Command
Preparation. All current senior members were required to
retake Level I.
Cadets increasingly supported Emergency Services
missions through support of ground operations. They
assisted in transporting supplies, medicine and in ground
medical evacuations. They also maintained hangars,
serviced aircraft, and operated radios.
The first Air Force Logistics Command Orientation Course
was conducted at bases around the country. Cadets
received a first-hand look at the manner in which the Air
Force performed aircraft maintenance, supply
operations, and computer operations.
In 1973, CAP celebrated 27 years of Aerospace Education.
CAP chose to do so through existing educational
institutions (schools and colleges) and in conjunction with
government and civilian organizations. Over 1,500 high
schools cooperated with CAP in offering CAP AE
programs, and over 15,000 educators attended CAP
sponsored AE workshops.

During 1972, CAP was heavily engaged in Emergency
Services missions. CAP responded to 20 Air Force

The National Search and Rescue Plan designated the Air
Force as having primary responsibility for the Inland
Region. CAP provided support to Air Force operations.
The Coast Guard had responsibility for the Maritime
Region (offshore from the American coastline). CAP
responded to 20 natural disasters in 13 states. Northeast
Region CAP conducted an annual Communications School
open to all CAP members.
CAP created a program called Squadrons of Distinction to
identify the ten best cadet squadrons every year. Criteria
for evaluation included cadet meeting attendance,
completion of cadet training requirements and awards,
and achievement contract completion.
CAP developed a close relationship with the Air Cadet
League of Canada. Joint activities began in 1948 with drill
competitions and an exchange program.
CAP also co-sponsored an annual Space Flight Orientation
Program with the National Aeronautics and Space
Administration (NASA). CAP chaplains sponsored CAP’s
cadet involvement with the Department of the Interior’s
Johnny Horizon program to clean up America for the
In 1974, the FAA required all aircraft to have Emergency
Locator Transmitters (ELTs). This greatly improved CAP’s
ability to located downed aircraft. CAP had a fleet of 300
aircraft equipped with ELT locators.
CAP occupied 345,687 square feet of DOD building and
office space at 114 locations. This provided space to only
10% of CAP units. Base closures negatively impacted the
availability of space on military installations. Membership
for the year was 61,447, with 26,176 cadets and 18,841
pilots in that number. There were 725 corporate aircraft.
During 1975, CAP flew almost 700 search missions and
saved 57 lives. CAP missions increased by 57% over the
previous year. Much of this activity was generated
mandatory responses to ELT transmissions. CAP
responded to ten natural disasters in nine states,
including Hurricane Eloise in Puerto Rico and major
flooding in Michigan and Pennsylvania. CAP had over

18,000 radio stations, the vast majority of which were
mobile units.
Brig Gen William Patterson became the first CAP National
Commander, The Commander of CAP-USAF was now the
Executive Director of Civil Air Patrol.
Twenty-two cadets participated in the annual
Experimental Aircraft Association Fly-in at Oshkosh,
Wisconsin. Plans were to continue this program in the
In 1976, CAP participated in 123 more missions, but flew
almost 7,000 less hours. Aerospace Rescue and Recovery
Services (ARRS, renamed from ARS) attributed this to
widespread use of ELTs. The FAA used computers to track
and store data on flight paths. The data was made
available during CAP searches to plot probable crash sites.
Each CAP wing was required to create an Aerospace
Education Plan of Action with its state department of
education in order to promote AE state-wide.
All cadets were required to attend an encampment to
receive the Billy Mitchell Award and progress through
Cadet Training Program. Seven thousand cadets attended
encampments at 45 military installations. Each wing
received two solo scholarships, and 3,000 cadets received
orientation flights.
The first former six CAP cadet women were admitted as
cadets at the United States Air Force Academy, out of 96
former CAP cadets admitted this year.
In 1977, the Annual Report noted that the Army was the
Executive agent for the Department of Defense in support
of natural disasters within the United States. The Army
had an agreement with Headquarters Air Force Reserve
(AFRES) for air support of the Army in this mission, and
AFRES had an agreement through its numbered Air Forces
with every CAP wing. CAP responded to 16 natural
disasters in 16 states—this included a three-day blizzard
in Colorado in March and major flooding in Pennsylvania
in July.

The first annual Aerospace Education Leadership
Development Course was conducted at Air University in
conjunction with Middle Tennessee State University in
Murfreesboro. Six hours of graduate or undergraduate
credit was offered for the course. The Aerospace
Personalities Series of packets was offered to schools
across the nation. It featured the stories of aviators such
as the Wright Brothers, Lindbergh, and Chappie James.
The first Helicopter Orientation was held at Kirtland Air
Force Base, New Mexico. Thirty-seven cadets attended
the program, which covered the Air Force Pararescue
Squadron Leadership Schools were established for all CAP
Regions to provide Level II Specialty Training for Senior
Members. Region Staff Colleges were established for
squadron level command and staff officers, and the
National Staff College to provide advanced leadership
training for CAP officers in the grade of major or above.
In 1978, CAP was credited with 21 saves in one rescue
operation when a commuter plane that crashed was
found in Colorado. CAP participated in relief operations
for 19 natural disasters. CAP completed a national net
linking National Headquarters, regions headquarters,
wing headquarters, and squadrons via high frequency
single-side-band transmissions. CAP continued providing
visual surveys of Military Training Routes. CAP saved over
$500 per survey compared to other resources used.
CAP established the Center for Aerospace Education
Development to publish and distribute Aerospace
Education materials. It was also responsible for planning
and conducting the annual National Congress on
Aerospace Education and Aerospace Education
Leadership Development Course. A series of teaching
packets were developed for elementary school students.
They were written to correspond with the different
reading and learning capabilities by grade level.
Twenty-five air force bases, and twenty-nine other
Department of Defense facilities hosted Cadet
Encampments for over 5,000 Cadets.

During 1979, CAP developed a new AE program called
Falcon Force for the upper elementary grades. It was
comprised of self-contained multi-media and
interdisciplinary learning kits. One hundred forty-three
elementary schools participated in the test program. A
new high school AE textbook was developed called
Aerospace: The Challenge. AFJROTC purchased 30,000
copies. CAP helped organize the World Aerospace
Education Association. An American contingent, led by
Jack Sorenson of CAP, attended the first World Congress
in Cairo, Egypt in October. The Incirlik Air Base Overseas
Cadet Squadron was activated this year. It was the
seventh overseas squadron to be chartered. The
Zweibruecken Cadet Squadron was also activated at
Zweibruecken Air Base, Germany.
The Annual Report section on Emergency Services noted
that of every one hundred crash survivors, only 18 would
survive for 24 hours, and only ten for 72 hours. With
planes equipped with ELTs, aid arrived on average at 23
hours, but without an ELT, average time reached four
days and 18 hours.
In 1980, cadet solo flight scholarships were cut to 50% of
previous levels, going from two per wing to one per wing.
This was due to funding shortages. The United States was
emerging from a recession that began with the oil
embargo of 1973. (Author’s note: Military funding in
general was extremely limited during the Carter
Falcon Force, the program for elementary school
Aerospace Education, completed its test period. CAP
National Headquarters decided to continue the program
by distributing more materials. Aerospace: The Challenge,
a textbook for high schools, was well received and went
into a second printing.
In a January storm, Oregon Wing was credited with saving
13 lives on a state mission. CAP, as a representative of the
Air Force and the Federal Government, only assisted
states when state and local resources were insufficient to
respond to the emergency. CAP provided much needed
disaster relief assistance in the aftermath of the Mount
St. Helens earthquake.

CAP assisted NASA with a survey of ELT data so that the
Goddard Space Flight Center could develop the next
generation of ELTs. CAP conducted 23 Military Training
Route Surveys for Strategic Air Command, which saved
$15,000. The surveys were designed to confirm that the
routes were safe for military training flights.
CAP operated a Supply Depot at Amarillo, Texas, that
provided spare parts for corporate aircraft. During the
year, CAP received 37 excess aircraft from the Air Force.
CAP had almost 60,000 members, of which 38% were
cadets. There were 1,883 units. CAP had 605 corporate
aircraft, supplemented by 7,570 member-owned aircraft.
CAP’s radio network had over 27,000 stations, over 70%
of which were mobile.
In 1981, for the tenth consecutive year, finds on Air Force
authorized missions increased, from 103 in 1971 to 660.
CAP flew 75% of Air Force search missions. CAP assisted
the Air Force in the test phase of the Search and Rescue
Satellite Aided Tracking (SARSAT) system. The system
used satellites in low, near polar orbit, to monitor distress
calls. CAP again began distributing Air Force aircraft parts
to units supporting combat missions.
CAP developed several new AE instructional materials.
These included the Aerospace Take-Home Crossword
Puzzles. Your Aerospace World was extensively revised
and reissued as Aerospace ’81. CAP cooperated with Paul
Garber to print a 1,500-page untitled manuscript on
aviation history.
The Senior Member Training Program was organized into
five phases, with corresponding awards:
1. Level 1 - Orientation - Membership Award.
2. Level 2 - Technical Specialization Training and
Officer Development. - Senior Member
Certificate of Proficiency.
3. Level 3 - Command and Staff – Grover Loening
Aerospace Award.
4. Level 4 - Senior Command and Staff – Paul E.
Garber Award.
5. Level 5 - USAF Senior School – Gill Rob Wilson

Senior members were offered several training
opportunities, including—but not limited to—Flight
Clinics, SAR and related courses, the Federal Emergency
Management Agency (FEMA) Institute, and Air Force
Survival Continuing Training.
Over 400 Air Force Reserve officers were assigned to
support CAP. They were organized in parallel with CAP, at
region, wing, and squadron levels.
In 1982, CAP introduced the new Aerospace Education
Program for Senior Members. This was designed to fill a
void in senior member training. The Aerospace Education
program for teachers remained the number one CAP AE
priority. Over 5,500 teachers were trained. Aerospace
Update in CAP News became a two-page feature on
projected CAP activities.
CAP increased the number of finds on Air Force
authorized missions to 782. The Track Analysis Program
(TAP) utilized computer data to analyze probable flight
paths of missing aircraft. FEMA requested CAP assistance
in ten civil/military conferences with state, regional, and
national officials. The FAA requested CAP to assist in
updating the State and Region Disaster Airlift Plan
(SARDA). Texas and Louisiana organizations conducted a
test exercise that was evaluated by CAP. All states were
asked to do the same. A new SARSAT systems was tested
with CAP assistance. The new system would decrease or
eliminate false activations of ELTs. CAP sought to
establish closer ties to the Coast Guard Auxiliary in
performing joint rescue missions along the coasts of the
United States.
The Aircraft Modernization Program (AMP) utilized funds
from selling old aircraft to purchase replacements. CAP
also received aircraft from the Department of Defense. If
not airworthy when received, all aircraft were refurbished
to FAA standards.
All CAP cadets could qualify for a series of six 30-minute
orientation flights. The Air Force covered the cost for the
first flight in each series, while CAP funded the remainder.
All 52 wings received one solo flight scholarship per year,
plus one for Overseas Units.

The Air Training Command (ATC) offered the ATC
Familiarization Course at four air force bases. The course
familiarized CAP cadets with undergraduate pilot and
navigator training. The Pararescue Orientation Course at
Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico, was attended by 104
Alaska, Hawaii, Colorado, and Pennsylvania each provided
$100,000 or more toward the CAP budget.
In 1983, CAP saved 154 lives. CAP continued to fly 75% of
Air Force missions. Ninety-nine percent of ELT activations
were non-distress—this when combined with a 113%
increase in ELT transmissions due to SARSAT detection,
created a major problem for CAP. CAP coordinated with
other agencies to find a way to reduce or eliminate false
distress signals. CAP, in conjunction with the
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), demonstrated
the use of Enviro-Pod, a device suspended from a light
aircraft that contained two 70mm cameras used to overly
disaster areas and record data for planning purposes.
Aerospace: The Challenge was revised and divided into
two volumes. It was used extensively in the AFJROTC
program at high schools around the nation. CAP
supported 185 graduate level AE workshops that trained
over 5,000 educators.
Cadets eligible to compete for academic and flight
scholarships and Mitchell Award recipients could enlist at
the E-3 pay grade in the Air Force. Glider pilot training was
offered to CAP cadets.
A Cessna aircraft was lifted into place outside CAP
National Headquarters at Maxwell AFB as part of a
monument honoring CAP members who lost their lives in
the line of duty.
During 1984, 108 cadets attended the Cadet Officer
School at Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama—a ten-day
course to teach cadets leadership and management skills.
CAP awarded $40,500 divided into 69 scholarships for

For the 13th consecutive year, SAR finds increased, for an
annual total of 1,204. ELT false transmissions continued
at 99%, while SARSAT alarms continued to increase. ELT
reliability continued to present as a significant problem.
CAP located and saved 170 individuals. CAP conducted its
first National Search and Rescue Competition at
Whiteman AFB, Missouri, Labor Day weekend where
Southwest Region placed first in the competition.
During CAP Exercise Friendship, part of the Night Train 84
exercise, the CAP communications net provided
professional message traffic support to Strategic Air
Command (SAC) bombers and tankers, and Aerospace
Defense Command (ADC) fighter interceptors. CAP also
participated in Night Tango exercises training to
reconstitute the national command authority network in
the event it was compromised in a national emergency.
More than 2,500 senior members completed the
Aerospace Education Program for Senior Members.
President Reagan initiated a Young Astronaut Program
across the nation to stimulate AE. The Great Lakes Region
was actively involved in this effort. CAP introduced a new
AE textbook, Horizons Unlimited. It contained more
learning activities and smaller, easier to read study blocks.
During 1985, CAP announced the new A. Scott Crossfield
Aerospace Education Teacher of the Year Award, to be
conferred annually beginning in 1986. It recognized
classroom teachers for outstanding accomplishments in
aerospace education.
The IACE continued to be CAP’s premier special activity
for cadets. 12 member nations participated, and 114 CAP
cadets traveled to member nations. The Senator Jennings
Randolph National Soaring School was conducted at
Warren State University in Missouri. 16 cadets attended
ground school participating in glider activities.
CAP flew rescue and support missions in response to
major flooding in Puerto Rico and the Atlantic coast and
to aid in hurricane relief on the Gulf and Atlantic coasts.
CAP saved 116 lives during the year.

CAP aircrews flew in support of DOD Amalgam Chief,
Global Shield, Brimfrost and Night Tango exercises.
Civil Air Patrol, with Air Force approval, agreed to support
US Customs Service in aerial drug interdiction missions
along the boundaries of the United States. The intent was
to identify and track vessels and ships attempting to
smuggle drugs into the country. CAP will be involved in
tracking only and will not participate in apprehensions or
seizures. CAP purchased Cessna aircraft that were
unmarked for drug interdiction missions.
Thirty-two vans were equipped with HF and VHF
equipment to support local, state and Federal emergency
relief efforts.
In 1986, CAP aided flood victims in California and
motorists stranded by heavy snows in Colorado. In a first,
CAP responded to a train derailment in Ohio. CAP flew
over 80% of Air Force authorized search missions, saving
136 lives. In Alaska and California, CAP initiated a program
to educate pilots on the need to properly maintain and
operate ELTs to decrease false ELT transmissions.
CAP flew airborne radiological monitoring missions and
participated in the Continental US Air Reconnaissance for
Damage Control (CARDA) program. 26 wings participated
In Exercise Friendship 86 in support of the DOD.
CAP continued drug interdiction missions. Missions began
along the Florida coast, and were expanded to California
and Arizona. Over 300 missions totaling 1,000 hours were
flown. The program extended to Texas and Chesapeake
Bay. CAP and the Coast Guard Auxiliary signed an
agreement of mutual support during search missions.
The Air Force Computer Orientation Program (AFCOP)
was initiated at Gunter Air Force Station, Alabama. Thirtyone CAP cadets participated in a program that included
basic programming language, history and design of
computers, and computer use in CAP and the Air Force.
Cadets received hands-on training with computers.

In 1987, 400 cadets earned the Mitchell Award, and 44
cadets earned the Spaatz Award. Sixty-seven CAP
members were part of the Air Force Academy graduating
class. Over 54,000 cadets earned the Mitchell Award
since its inception. 6,783 cadets attended encampments
at 37 air force bases and 31 other DOD installations.
CAP flew 2,097 Air Force authorized missions and saved
108 lives. CAP frequently assisted the Coast Guard
Auxiliary in locating ELT beacons on coastal shipping. US
Customs trained over 1,100 CAP aircrew members and
CAP crews flew about half the Customs Service
surveillance patrol flying hours.
CAP operated over 32,000 stations licensed by the FCC.
During this year, 52 HF radios, 102 VHF-AM and 159 VHFFM radios, with power supplies, were acquired by CAP.
CAP continued to actively support the National Congress
of Aviation and Space Education. At the annual meeting
in Orlando, Brig Gen Charles Yeager was the guest
speaker. Participants toured the Kennedy Space Center.
The Crown Circle Award was presented to three
individuals for outstanding accomplishments in
Aerospace Education.
CAP conducted the annual Region and Wing
Commanders’ Course at Maxwell AFB, Alabama, in
March. Fourteen new wing commanders attended the
four-day course. Air University also offered distance
learning versions of Squadron Officers’ School, Air
Command and Staff College, and Air War College to
qualifying CAP senior members.
Hawaii, Pennsylvania, Alaska, Illinois, Massachusetts and
California state governments all contributed over
$100,000 each to CAP, with Hawaii providing $429,000.
In 1988, President Ronald Reagan was the keynote
speaker at the annual National Congress on Aviation and
Space Education in March. President Reagan noted that
aerospace education was vital to the nation’s future. The
theme was aerospace education in the 21st century.

The CAP Chaplain Corps introduced a pamphlet in 1987
on contemporary ethical issues titled Values for Living.

The Blue Beret Program became a national cadet activity
in 1985. The two-week program included survival
training, drill and ceremonies, flight line operations, and
aircraft traffic direction and control.
CAP flew 2,434 Air Force authorized missions, saving 108
lives. CAP flew over 80,000 of the total hours flown on
these missions. Over 350 CAP personnel were trained by
the US Customs Service. CAP continued to fly half of the
US Customs aerial drug interdiction missions. CAP
supported the Red Cross by transporting blood in the
aftermath of natural disasters.
Alaska contributed $1,555,000 to CAP. Others states that
contributed over $100,000 to CAP were Pennsylvania,
Hawaii, Illinois, Massachusetts and California. CAP’s
membership consisted of 30,505 cadets and 42,331
senior members.
During 1989, CAP flew 2,681 Air Force authorized
missions, saving 65 lives. Puerto Rico Wing flew 60 sorties
and 195 hours in the aftermath of Hurricane Hugo hitting
the island. CAP, the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA), and
the US Forest Services (USFS) signed an agreement for
CAP to assist in aerial reconnaissance to detect illegal
drugs, primarily marijuana farms in forested areas.
CAP Communicators obtained 72 communications racks,
75 power supplies, and 66 antennae for the 84 VHF-FM
repeaters purchased the previous year. 1,000 VHF-FM
transceivers were also ordered. CAP participated in the
National Communications inter-agency Shared Resources
(SHARES) HF Radio Program Exercise 89-2 to evaluate the
ability of different agencies to interface their nets.
The National Cadet Competition allowed 8 teams, each
representing a CAP region, to win the Air Force Chief of
Staff Sweepstakes Trophy as winner of the competition.
Cadets were evaluated on precision drill, physical fitness,
and aerospace knowledge.
The third edition of Aerospace: The Challenge was
published. Instructor guides and exams were updated.

Actor and aviation enthusiast Cliff Robertson was
awarded an honorary membership in CAP. He was guest
speaker at the annual CAP awards banquet.
In 1989, 26,360 senior members completed Level I of the
Senior Member Training Program; 1,002 Level II; 626
Level III; 262 Level IV; and 68 completed Level V, receiving
the Gill Robb Wilson Award.
The CAP Chaplain Corps reached 1,000 members.
Chaplains provided training in moral, spiritual, and
patriotic values. Chaplains conducted religious services
and provided counseling to members at CAP activities.
During 1990, 1,442 cadets earned the Mitchell Award,
529 the Earhart Award, and 67 cadets the Spaatz Award.
The Earhart Award was required for participation in the
IACE. Ninety-eight cadets participated in IACE, exchanging
with 12 other member countries, plus four Asian
countries. The Blue Beret Encampment, held annually in
conjunction with the Experimental Aircraft Association
fly-in at Oshkosh, Wisconsin, was renamed CAP-EAA
Oshkosh. 325 cadets attended encampments.
CAP’s communications capability consisted of 18,000
stations, and Communications were upgraded with the
acquisition of 52 FAX machines, 141 VHF-AM radios for
ground team to air communications, and 1,846 VHF-FM
radios short range communications.
CAP initiated a no-notice Wing Operational Effectiveness
Exercise policy designed to evaluate emergency services
effectiveness at any given time. Emphasis was on mobility
and tactical communications. CAP flew 2,475 Air Force
authorized missions, saving 46 lives. The Air Force added
a CAP Appendix to USAF Concept Plan 7045-90, Military
Support to Civil Defense.
CAP’s drug interdiction mission was renamed the
Counternarcotics (CN) Mission. CAP flew 12,970 hours in
support of the US Customs Service, the DEA, and the
Forest Service. This led to discovery of 155,000 marijuana
plants, 72 vessel intercepts, 1,093 marked airfields
identified, 27 suspected airfields located, and 52 photo
reconnaissance missions.

MISSIONS, 1991-2001
During 1991, with the nation at war, CAP flew noncombat patrol missions over Armed Forces facilities in the
United States. During Operation Desert Shield, Georgia
Wing flew 20 sorties to support Special Operations
training. During Desert Storm, North Carolina Wing flew
reconnaissance missions over the Sunny Point Weapons
Depot area.
Rhode Island and Massachusetts Wings flew relief
missions in response to Hurricanes Bob and Grace, and
Iowa Wing provided emergency transportation during a
severe November snowstorm. CAP flew 2,700 missions
and saved 82 lives during the year.
CAP flew over 17,000 hours of counter narcotic missions.
This included marine patrols searching for suspicious
vessels, border patrol, and aerial reconnaissance for
marijuana fields and clandestine airfields. CAP also
transported law enforcement personnel and assisted with
CAP celebrated its 50th Anniversary. The Annual Report
included many photos of past CAP activities. Over the
years, several Senior Member courses were incorporated
into the Senior Member Training Program. These
included Squadron Leadership School to enhance
leadership and management skills as well as specialization
training as part of Level II; the Corporate Learning Course
which addresses squadron management as part of Level
III; the Region Staff College to teach communications,
leadership and management to commanders and staff
officers as part of Level IV; and the National Staff College
to teach senior CAP officers the elements of CAP policy
and organization at the national level.
Alaska, Hawaii, and Pennsylvania contributed over
$200,000 each to Civil Air Patrol.
During 1992, Civil Air Patrol was heavily involved in
disaster relief, responding to hurricane damage across

the country. CAP units in Florida and Louisiana responded
in the aftermath of Hurricane Andrew, one of the most
devastating hurricanes to date. A Florida Wing aircraft
was the first to fly into South Florida after the hurricane
passed through, and CAP units from across the Southeast
Region transported medical personnel, communications
equipment, security personnel, and vital supplies into the
Miami area at Homestead AFB. In Hawaii after Hurricane
Iniki, CAP provided the only civilian inter-island
communications available in the aftermath of the
CAP signed agreements with the National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Agency (NOAA) to provide aerial mapping
and reconnaissance, and with the Department of the
Interior to monitor remote areas controlled by the
CAP conducted 2,594 missions saving 110 lives.
Unfortunately, CAP was hindered by having to conduct
over 2,000 searches for activated ELTs. Only about 60
transmissions were actual distress calls. This has been a
problem for years and no satisfactory solution has yet
been found. CAP flew almost 20,000 hours in support of
the CN mission.
The number of communications stations was up 10% to
20,821. Two thirds of these were mobile stations. CAP
continued to participate in the National Communications
Program’s Shared Resources (SHARES) to provide an
emergency backup system in support of national security
and emergency preparedness.
Each year, the Chaplain Service issued a new series of
booklets on developing relevant values for daily living.
This provided cadets with information they could use in
supporting the President’s Anti-Drug Campaign. The
Ethics for Command Program was designed to help senior
members understand the need for ethics and values in
everyday life, especially as it related to interacting with
CAP senior members and cadets.
CAP maintained a Hall of Honor at National Headquarters,
Maxwell AFB, Alabama. It featured distinguished
members of Civil Air Patrol from its foundation to the

present. CAP also maintained an Air Force Academy Cadet
Hall of Honor that recognized the former CAP cadet with
the highest order of merit rating in each graduating class.
During 1993, CAP flew 3,122 search and rescue missions
and saved 120 lives. During the Midwest Flood in
Missouri, Kansas, Illinois, and Iowa, CAP units flew relief
flights for 44 days, flying 2,500 hours in 500 sorties.
Ground teams served over 9,000 meals, and 4,000
volunteer man-days were provided for the operation. CAP
also assisted in relief after the East Coast blizzard, the
Oregon earthquake, and the Alabama AMTRAK disaster.
CAP flew over 20,000 hours in support of the Counter
Drug (CD) mission. This year was the second best for
safety in the history of CAP.
Seventy-six encampments provided training for 4,676
cadets at 76 Air Force installations and other DOD
facilities. CAP signed an agreement with the Air Force to
provide a test of funded flight orientations to high school
AFJROTC cadets.
CAP dedicated a memorial in Arlington National Cemetery
in honor of CAP members who lost their lives in the line
of duty.
During 1994, CAP flew 2,502 missions that saved 154
lives. CAP also responded to the most costly disaster in
American history to date, the Northridge Earthquake in
California. The quake measured 6.6 on the Richter scale.
CAP assisted the American Red Cross in providing relief
aid, delivering supplies and equipment. CAP drove over
129,000 miles and assisted in sheltering 22,000 victims.
This was done at a cost of $2.05 per hour.
CAP flying cost $60 per hour, versus $1,600 per hour for
helicopters, $2,200 per hour for a C-130 aircraft, and
$350 per hour for other Federal aircraft. CAP saved
taxpayers $20 million for every 13,000 hours flown by
CAP maintained a 24/7 National Digital Radio Network
(NDRN). This network had automatic storing and
forwarding capabilities that linked National Headquarters
with region and wing headquarters. Voice activity is

initiated daily through the National Command Network.
Special purpose networks also existed in CAP.
IACE member countries increased to 15. These included
Austria, Australia, Belgium, Canada, Finland, France,
Germany, Israel, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway,
Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and
the United States. Ninety-six CAP cadets participated this
CAP celebrated its 44th year of supporting AE workshops
for over 5,000 teachers each year. AE materials were
updated, and a new program recognizing senior members
who completed any portion of the CAPP 215 Level II AE
Officer Specialty Track. Sixteen teachers received
scholarships to attend the National Space Academy at the
US Space and Rocket Center at Huntsville, Alabama.
During the year, 685 CAP Chaplains conducted 4,204
pastoral counseling sessions, 4,654 worship services, and
1,910 home and hospital visits. They also attended 14,056
meetings, 65 summer encampments, and conducted
3,764 moral leadership classes for 46,452 cadets.
Note: The Annual Report (AR) for 1995, covering CY 1994,
was the last in the series to be numbered when published,
when the text referred to the previous year (AR 1995 was
about CY 1994). AR 1995-b covers 1995 from 1 Jan to 30
Sep 1995. AR 1996 begins on 1 Oct 1995 and goes
through 31 Dec 2016. From AR 1997 on, the document
title refers to the year covered: AR 1997 covers CY 1997,
and so on with subsequent ARs.
During 1995, CAP had 530 fixed-wing aircraft, 21 gliders,
and 2 hot air balloons. They were augmented by 4,490
member-owned planes available for CAP service in
emergencies. CAP continued to offer the lowest flying
cost per hour of any search aircraft, at $75 per hour,
versus $350 for other Federal aircraft, $1,600 for
helicopters, and $2,200 for Air Force C-130s. CAP
operated 909 vehicles. CAP flew 2,261 missions, with 108
saves. The Live Organ Transport Program flew 17 missions
this year. The program has been in existence for 12 years
and has saved 286 lives.

Four hundred-fifty former CAP cadets attended the Air
Force Academy this year. Of past former CAP cadets who
attended the Academy, 75.9% graduated, compared to
an overall graduation rate of 70.6%. Two hundred former
cadets attended the US Military Academy, and 174 the US
Naval Academy. The age to become a cadet was lowered
to 12, provided that the potential cadet was in grade 6.
The Drug Demand Reduction (DDR) Program is a joint Air
Force - CAP effort to reduce drug use among Air Force
family members. Active DDR programs existed at 20 Air
Force installations.
In 1989, CAP-USAF was directed by the Department of the
Air Force to realign its staff. This was completed in 1995.
Alaska with $710,340 and Hawaii with $214,025 again
topped the list of states giving financial aid to CAP.
An AE Handbook was published, and an AE website was
created for the internet. Over 45,000 AE packets were
distributed to teachers this year.
During 1996, CAP conducted 2,404 search missions,
saving 94 lives. Errant ELT transmission continued to
distract CAP search teams from real emergencies. CAP
continued to be on call 24/7. CAP participated in disaster
relief missions in the aftermath of Hurricanes Bertha,
Fran, and Hortense.
CAP obtained the ability to transmit high-resolution still
images from aircraft to ground stations. This technology
was used by CAP to monitor the 1996 Olympics in Atlanta,
Georgia. CAP redesigned the National Digital Radio
Network to allow its use for email. FEMA integrated this
system with its own as a backup. The Joint Chiefs of Staff
initiated a study to evaluate CAP’s role in providing
emergency communications for Air Force missions for the
purpose of retaining radio frequency bands shared by the
Air Force and CAP.
Over 5,000 CAP members assisted in Counterdrug
Operations. This contributed to the seizure of $2.4 billion
in illegal drugs. Drug Demand Reduction initiatives

resulted in the creation of a network which included
20,000 young people in 1,100 units, in every state.
Six thousand cadet orientation flights were completed.
CAP received the first annual Flight Training Achievement
Award from the General Aviation (GA) Team for its
outstanding flight orientation and summer encampment
programs. With these flights and activities on Air Force
bases, CAP cadets were able to learn about aviation and
Air Force careers. One hundred four scholarships worth
over $80,000 were awarded. This averaged $770 per
cadet. CAP cadets visited 17 countries in Europe and the
Pacific Rim as part of the IACE. CAP cadets participated in
the 20th anniversary celebration of the Smithsonian
Institute’s Air and Space Museum.
Five thousand educators attended 125 college
workshops. They were expected to reach out to 500,000
young people in the classroom. CAP initiated online
education with its Great Lakes Region Education Home
Page. CAP curriculum developers produced a prototype
module that was later used for KinderCare’s KC
Imagination Highway.
CAP initiated a year-long program in July to recruit one
new member for every unit in CAP. Total CAP
membership was 53,873.
During 1997, CAP distributed over 20,000 free
educational products to American schools. Fourteen AE
lessons plans were on the internet, two AE flight test
simulations were available, electronic visits to the
National Air and Space Museum were possible over the
internet. Creation of a CAP web page, coupled with
distribution of AE materials to teachers, led to a 13%
increase in CAP membership. More than 300 cadets and
14 teachers from inner-city schools joined CAP.
Membership 2000, CAP’s recruitment initiative, brought
3,800 new members into the organization. Total
membership in 1997 was 56,689. This year, CAP
celebrated the Air Force’s 50th Anniversary.


CAP founded the National Technology Center (NTC),
located in Richmond, Virginia, in June. The NTC is a
recycling center for communications and computer
equipment coming from DOD and other Federal agencies
as they upgrade their systems. CAP gained $230,000
worth of equipment through this program for the year.
CAP flew 2,819 search missions that saved 75 lives. This
comprised 87% of Air Force authorized sorties. CAP
responded to severe flooding in Iowa, Minnesota,
Kentucky, and Ohio, and to tornadoes in and around
Waco, Texas. The CAP CD program contributed toward
eliminating millions of dollars’ worth of illegal drugs.
CAP, in conjunction with the Armed Services YMCA,
initiated a summer day camp for children of junior
enlisted personnel in the Chesapeake Bay area. CAP’s
DDR Middle School Initiative placed CAP units in middle
The attrition rate for former CAP cadets attending Air
Force Basic Training is 3.9 percent, about half that of
general enlistees. Each year, about 10% of the cadet
population at the Air Force Academy is comprised of CAP
More than 100 cadets attended Aviation Challenge in
Huntsville, Alabama. Scholarships were provided by the
Space Camp Foundation. The Spartan School of
Aeronautics offered 104 $500 scholarships to cadets who
participated in their technical or flying programs.
CAP field-tested six new activity oriented AE modules
recommend by the Cadet AE Task Force. The AE 2000
Program, a four-volume module, was made available to
more squadrons.
During 1998, CAP continued its innovative cadet activities.
Of 26,000 cadets, over 11,000 attended national and
regional cadet activities. The Air Force Space Command
Course was offered to cadets 15 and older. They
participated in T-43 and helicopter flights and toured a
nuclear submarine. The Air Education and Training
Command Familiarization Course (formerly the Air
Training Command Course) allowed CAP cadets to

observe and learn with student pilots at two air force
bases. Cadets visited the base control tower, aircraft
maintenance hangers, and the parachute shop. The
National Blue Beret Encampment (formerly CAP-EAA) was
held in conjunction with the Experimental Aircraft
Association fly-in at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The Advanced
Pararescue Course offered advanced training in
mountaineering and navigation, and supplemented the
Basic Course.
The National Flight Academy-Power Track offered ground
instruction plus ten hours’ observer flight time, while the
National Flight Academy-Glider Track allowed cadets 14
and older the opportunity to fly with a glider pilot. The
National Ground Search-and-Rescue School taught 152
cadets the latest search and rescue techniques. Hawk
Mountain, the Pennsylvania Wing Ranger school, was
designated a National Cadet Activity. It taught cadets
basic and advanced emergency services, and trained
team commanders and field medics.
DDR funding paid for 620 cadets to attend summer
encampments, 55 cadets to attend power or glider
academies, 18 to attend national special activities, and
200 Civil Air Patrol memberships for cadets.
CAP flew 3,155 search missions, saving 116 lives. CAP
responded to severe ice storms in the Northeast that
hampered transportation and communication. CAP
provided disaster relief to areas hit by tornadoes in
Florida, Alabama, Tennessee, and South Dakota. Flood
relief missions were flown in Florida and Texas. CAP
responded to victims of Hurricane Georges in Puerto Rico.
CAP acquired 20 new Cessna Skyhawks to replace its
oldest planes, and upgraded its Cessna 162s from 160 to
180 horsepower. For safety reasons, CAP’s entire vehicle
fleet was equipped with daytime running lights.
The CAP Supply Depot in Amarillo, Texas, offered low cost
parts and equipment to CAP members who made their
planes available for emergency services missions. CAP
members could buy discounted survival equipment,
Aerospace Education materials, and communications
equipment from the depot.

Forty Thousand Aerospace Education products were
distributed free to educators, and assisted them in
organizing AE field days. Eight-eight new lesson plans
were created, and CAP online resources were expanded.
During 1999, CAP flew 2,098 search missions, saving 84
lives. Hurricane Floyd did extensive damage in North and
South Carolina. Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Tennessee,
Louisiana, South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia,
Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey Wings
responded. CAP transported state officials, provided
aerial photography of devastated areas, monitored
evacuation routes, monitored flooding, and performed
damage assessment. CAP also responded to damaging
tornadoes in Oklahoma. CAP flew 6,502 missions in
support of Counternarcotic efforts. CAP corporate aircraft
were painted in a uniform CAP color scheme for the first
time in ten years.
Thirty thousand free AE products were distributed to
educators. CAP developed an electronic AE support
system that provided online lesson plans, resource
guides, networking maps, internet links to educational
sites, and links to aviation oriented museum internet
sites. CAP published a fifth volume of Aerospace 2000.
Cadet membership exceeded 26,000, and overall
retention efforts improved. CAP created the Five Pillars of
the Cadet Program to assess the five critical areas of cadet
growth: Leadership Skills, Aerospace Education, Physical
Training, Activities, and Moral Leadership.
The CAP Chaplain Corps utilized Moral Leadership Officers
to augment the work of Chaplains by providing moral
guidance to cadets and assist with monthly leadership
seminars in their squadrons. Many Chaplains received
Critical Incident Stress Training to enable them to counsel
CAP personnel who encountered traumatic incidents in
the course of their Emergency Services duties. About 87%
of all emergency personnel exposed to a critical incident
will display signs of traumatic stress.

hundred twenty cadets received powered aircraft or
glider training. The DDR Program provided 750
encampment scholarships for eligible cadets.
Cadets have a mandatory AE requirement as part of their
training. Senior Members have an elective, self-paced AE
program. Aerospace Education members are primarily
educators in primary and secondary schools. They
received free educational products, including lesson
plans, newsletters and multi-level curriculum kits—most
of which could now be obtained via online resources as
technologies made such opportunities available.
CAP introduced a new Aerospace Education Program,
with a two-volume set of textbooks. Volume I, Aerospace
Dimensions, was designed for younger cadets in Phases I
and II. Volume II, Aerospace: The Journey of Flight, was for
older cadets in Phases III and IV.
CAP flew 2,819 missions, saving 77 lives. CAP responded
to a train wreck in Louisiana and forest fires in New
Mexico. CAP’s flight safety rate was 94 accidents per
100,000 flying hours, a significant improvement over
earlier rates. CAP adopted the risk management program
to identify potential safety hazards in advance and resolve
CAP flew drug interdiction flights in Virginia in support of
the Virginia State Police that identified 51 suspected
marijuana grow sites, and assisted authorities in Colorado
in discovering potential grow sites.
Public Law 398 defined the legal status of CAP in relation
to the Federal government. CAP is an extension of the
Federal government (and the Air Force) when it is
performing services for the Federal government by
assisting the Air Force in completing its non-combat
mission. The legislation also created the CAP Board of
Governors as the governing body of CAP.

For 2000, cadet membership was approximately 25,000.
Nearly 12,000 cadets participated in special activities.
Thirty-six hundred attended summer encampments. One

SECURITY, 2001-2016
2001 was an electrifying year. On 11 September 2001
(9/11), a CAP aircrew was the first plane on scene to
provide aerial reconnaissance over the World Trade
Center site—one of the targets in the terrorist attacks
that galvanized the nation. Elsewhere in the country, CAP
transported blood for the American Red Cross in response
to the disaster. Across the country, CAP aircraft flew
government officials and supplies as the country
mobilized to respond to possible additional attacks, and
to respond to the attacks in New York, Pennsylvania, and
the Pentagon in Virginia. New York Wing provided
continuous visual aerial images to FEMA and state
officials, and CAP Wings across the nation assisted the
Coast Guard in coastal surveillance operations.
CAP marked its 60th Anniversary on 1 Dec 2001 quietly, as
the nation was still on alert from the events of 11
September 2001. CAP officials noted that CAP was again
called to defend the homeland, and needed as much as
when it was called upon to serve the nation in WW II.
The Defense Authorization Bill of 2000 created a Board of
Governors for CAP consisting of representatives of CAP,
the Air Force, and aviation oriented organizations, as well
as the National Commander and Vice Commander.
CAP flew 85% of Air Force search missions, flying 2,992
missions that saved 65 lives. This was in addition to the
massive support provided to FEMA and the states of New
York and Pennsylvania after the attack of 911. CAP also
continued to fly Counter CD missions in support of US
Customs and the DEA. California Wing alone assisted in
the confiscation of illegal drugs worth $118 million.
Nationwide, 3,789 CD missions were flown by CAP
CAP Communicators operated 21,350 stations. Over
24,000 members operated these stations. Most of these
stations were owned by CAP members. CAP would
convert all its radios from wide band to narrow band.

CAP’s cadet membership was about 24,000. Many
national special activities were available to cadets,
including the Advanced Technology Cadet National
Academy. In this program, cadets learned how to operate
cameras that took single frame video and transmit images
from air to ground. They also studied space and satellite
communications. In the Air Force Weather Agency
Familiarization Course, cadets learned weather
interpretation, contour mapping, severe weather
environmental analysis. CAP planned to transition to a
corporate owned system for better integration and
The Jacksonville University / Comair Aviation Academy
Airline Training Track provided training to Cadets
interested in becoming airline pilots and included 15
hours of flying time. The National Military Music Academy
provided music training to Cadets so they could introduce
military style music to their local units. This included fife
and drum and well as other types of military music.
Thirty-six schools participated in the Drug Demand
Reduction Middle School initiative, which offered
aerospace education learning and ethical training to
middle school students. DDR provided more than 1,000
scholarships this year.
CAP distributed 30,000 AE products to educators, and
provided $15,000 in grants to classroom teachers. CAP
developed the Aerospace Education Excellence (AEX)
Award Program to enable squadrons and schools to
motivate Cadets and students with hands-on activities.
There were two volumes in the support text, one for K-5
and another for 6-12. Most of the activities centered on
building models of planes and various spacecraft.
During 2002, CAP membership increased due to public
reaction to the events of 911, from 58,090 in 2001 to
63,250 in 2002. More than 8,700 CAP volunteers flew in
support of terrorist attack recovery missions. CAP also
flew in support of Operation Noble Eagle for the Air Force.
CAP aircrews flew target planes that simulated terrorist
attacks on the United States so Air Force fighters could
practice intercepts. CAP also flew reconnaissance

missions in support of the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt
Lake City, Utah, resulting in at least one law enforcement
action per day. CAP flew 105,079 search flight hours,
saving 88 lives
The Chief of Staff of the Air Force authorized promotion
of CAP National Commanders to Maj Gen and CAP Vice
Commanders to Brig Gen in response to CAP’s increasing
Homeland Security mission. CAP coordination with the Air
Force would transition to a relationship with the Air Force
Directorate of Homeland Security.

CAP expanded its Information Management System and
distributed 423 computers to CAP units.
During 2003, cadet membership was at its highest in over
ten years, with over 27,000 cadets on board. Over 15,000
cadets participated in AE activities this year. Over 21,000
cadets received orientation flights. More than 200 cadets
began flight training.

CAP became the first non-profit organization to sponsor a
NASCAR race car. No. 46, driven by Ashton Lewis, Jr.,
competed in 34 races, finishing the season 17th out of 60.

CAP flew hours 97,000 hours, with 140 saves. CAP flew
over 95% of all inland search missions. CAP purchased a
new satellite digital imaging system (SDIS). This allowed
CAP to transmit high quality photos to multiple locations
simultaneously. Fifteen aircraft were fitted with the

Counterdrug missions destroyed 4,500 cultivated and
4,500 wild marijuana plants. CAP aircraft simulated drugsmuggling aircraft for the benefit of NORAD trackers and

CAP Counterdrug missions assisted in the destruction of
over $10 billion in illegal drugs. CAP responded to the
crash of the space shuttle Colombia. CAP devoted over
1,000 man-days in the search for wreckage.

The Air Force Association presented CAP with the Hoyt S.
Vandenberg Award for its contributions to Aerospace
Education. CAP was recognized for its Aerospace
Education Award Program for K-12 students, and for its
aerospace curriculum.

CAP provided disaster relief support in the aftermath of
Hurricane Isabel on the Atlantic coast. CAP also assisted
in disaster relief efforts after 88 tornadoes struck Middle
America in November.

The National Cadet Competition consisted of two
segments, the color guard competition and the drill team
competition. The event was held in July at the Air Force
Academy. Florida Wing won the color guard competition
and New York Wing the drill competition.
Drug Demand Reduction scholarships were given to 1,200
students as part of a program to encourage them to resist
drugs and the temptation to use them.
CAP added a new special activity, the Advanced
Technology Academy, in partnership with Auburn
University, to orient cadets about the career
opportunities in technical aviation and space.
CAP Chaplains provided 35,000 hours of service time and
5,000 hours of volunteer counseling.

CAP participated in the Air Force’s Operation Virgo,
simulating terrorist flight operations over America,
especially in the Washington, DC, area. Operation Liberty
Shield was initiated in response to an Orange Alert, CAP
aircrews and ground crews prepared for deployment.
CAP Aerospace Education workshops trained hundreds of
educators, who in turn taught AE courses to over 50,000
students. The Aerospace Education Excellence Award
Program enriched the lives of 10,000 young people in K12 grades. CAP provided $300,000 for cadet scholarships
and special activities.
CAP expanded its online capabilities. Knowledgebase is an
interactive website to respond to members’ questions.
The CAP Bookstore initiated an online ordering system.
The CAP website was divided into public access areas and
members-only areas.

Alaska, with over $500,000 in state contributions to CAP,
again led the nation. Tennessee was second with
$143,135. Thirteen states and two other governments
contributed no funds to the CAP mission.
In 2004, Air Combat Command’s 1st Air Force (which is the
air component of US Northern Command) signed a
memorandum of understanding (MOU) with CAP that
provided for CAP to support the Air Force in non-combat
missions. 1st Air Force would be the executive agent of the
Air Force for requesting such support.
As part of its Homeland Security mission, CAP assisted in
the following training missions: United Defense 2004
(military support to civil authorities); Heartland Response
2004 (New Madrid Fault earthquake responses;
Determined Promise 2004 (chemical, biological, and
nuclear attack); and Amalgam Virgo (airborne terrorism).
CAP flew 1,963 missions, with 58 saves. Membership was
at 60,000, with 25,000 cadets. In the operations area, CAP
initiated efforts to become the resource of choice for
public agencies needing aviation based assistance with
homeland security, search and rescue, disaster relief, and
counterdrug missions. To do this, CAP established
strategic partnerships with government agencies and
other volunteer organizations.
CAP increased its online and technological capabilities.
The National Operations Center centralized mission
coordinated of search and rescue, disaster relief,
counterdrug, and homeland security missions. Online
learning modules were expanded and computer based
learning and operational control increased.
CAP collaborated with the Army, Navy, Air Force, and
Coast Guard to develop ARCHER (Airborne Real-Time
Cuing Hyperspectral Enhanced Reconnaissance),
scheduled to activate in 2005. ARCHER was a highly
sophisticated device for locating difficult to find ground
targets by identifying their spectral signature. Sixteen
Gippsland GA-8 Airvans were purchased by CAP to be
ARCHER platforms.

Another system, VCN (Visual Computing Network),
allowed CAP personnel to use laptop computers
preloaded with mapping software to simulate flight
missions. Forty Cessna Skylanes were equipped with the
new Garmin 1000 state of the art flight deck package.
CAP provided free uniforms to all new cadets in 2004,
over 11,000 total. CAP participated in the National Red
Ribbon Campaign against drug use by teenagers.
CAP created a new Civic Leadership Academy in
Washington, DC. to teach cadets about civil responsibility
and the democratic process. The first group of cadets met
with Secretary of State Colin Powell. CAP cadets also
attended the National Honor Guard Academy at Camp
Pendleton, Virginia, to train with Air Force Honor Guards.
One hundred fifteen cadets soloed at CAP summer flight
academies. Other cadets attended the Aerospace
Education Academy operated in conjunction with the
Experimental Aircraft Association, and other CAP cadet
special activities.
CAP cadets were provided free copies of AE technical
software called the Satellite Tool Kit. The software was
donated by Analytical Graphics, Inc., and was similar to
software used at more than 70 universities.
CAP offered orientation flights to teacher AE members
through the CAP Fly-A-Teacher Program. The Air Force
Association made grants available for CAP AE.
Aerospace Education was offered in select schools in
response to the No Child Left Behind Act. Students
introduced to AE showed improvement in STEM subjects.
CAP introduced a new textbook called Model Rocketry.
CAP was concerned with a shortage of trained aerospace
engineers in response to the aging of baby boomers, and
considered ways to encourage American youth to
consider careers in aerospace related fields.
Alaska at $503,100 and Pennsylvania at $450,000, led the
nation in state contributions to CAP. Thirty-six states
contributed to CAP. Private corporations donated over

The Commander of CAP-USAF was now called the Senior
Advisor to Civil Air Patrol. CAP appointed its own civilian
Executive Director.
During 2005, CAP flew 2,507 search missions, saving 73
lives. This included the CAP response to Hurricanes
Katrina, Ophelia, Rita, and Wilma in Louisiana, Mississippi,
Texas, North Carolina, Alabama, and Florida. Over 1,800
members deployed from 17 states. CAP aircrews flew
over 1,000 missions in support of hurricane relief. There
were 131 ground missions that visited 4,266 homes and
contacted over 8,500 residents. More than 50,000 manhours were worked in the aftermath of the hurricanes.
CAP also flew aerial imaging missions to locate hurricane
damage and survivors.
The Secretary of the Air Force noted that CAP was a force
multiplier for the Air Force, enabling the Air Force to
expand its mission capabilities at reduced cost. CAP
membership was approximately 57,000, with near 22,000
Twenty-five cadets participated in the Leadership
Academy in Washington, DC. Another 70 Cadets
participated in IACE in other member countries, and
foreign cadets were hosted by eleven CAP wings.
CAP operated fourteen career exploration academies for
over 100 cadets. New for this year were the Air Force
Space Command Familiarization Course at Vandenberg
AFB, California; an aviation engineering course at Wright
State University in Ohio; and an aircraft manufacturing
academy at the Cessna aircraft plant in Kansas.
The CAP Aerospace Education field personnel were
comprised of eight region deputy chiefs of staff, 52 with
directors of AE, and about 1,500 squadron AE officers.
They were augmented by about 1,600 AE members of
CAP Chaplains counseled victims of hurricanes, as well as
emergency services personnel troubled by the conditions
they found while assisting in the relief efforts. Forty
percent of CAP Chaplains are trained pilots, observers, or
scanners. Chaplain Dewey Painter of Florida Wing

personally supervised the distribution of 30,000 pounds
of relief supplies.
CAP medical personnel included physicians, nurses,
laboratory and other technicians and medical service
personnel. They were always present at disaster relief
The CAP Public Affairs team created a CAP Public Affairs
Officer Toolkit to provide a state of the art training
package. It was distributed to 1,500 CAP units. This was
part of an aggressive program to revitalize public affairs.
Other efforts include CDs and DVDs on public affairs
topics and CAP.
In 2006, CAP had 55,889 members, of whom 22,558 were
cadets. CAP flew 63,787 flying hours, saving 58 lives. CAP
again flew 95% of Air Force authorized search missions.
CAP supported Air Force training by simulating terrorist
aircraft in intercept exercises. National Capital Wing
participated in tests of the Air Force’s Visual Warning
System for pilots who flew into the national capital’s nofly zone. In Alaska, CAP patrolled shipping lanes to
observe cruise ships and other potential terrorist targets.
Using its ARCHER system of spectral identification, CAP
patrolled the Arizona and New Mexico international
borders looking for intruders. CAP also participated in US
Northern Command’s Ardent Sentry exercise to practice
responding to natural disasters in the United States and
Canada. CAP planes flew security missions to monitor
military shipments on civilian means of transportation
and flew escort to US Navy vessels in coastal waters. CAP
reconnaissance missions assisted in the seizure by
Federal authorities of almost $1 billion worth of illegal
drugs. CAP used GPS systems to pinpoint wildfires and
The Air Force provided CAP with $10.4 million for
communications upgrades. CAP used the money to
purchase 3,070 mobile VHF radios, 1,112 portable VHF
radios, nearly 5,000 UHF intra-squad radios, 435 fixed
repeaters, 113 airborne repeaters, and 10 satellite radios.


Sixty-three hundred cadets participated in flights this
year. This number include 2,700 orientation flights to
cadets. Over 1,600 cadets attended CAP special activities.
$200,000 in scholarships was made available to CAP
cadets during the year. The Order of Daedalians, a military
pilot society, awarded scholarships up to $2,100, and
AOPA provided two scholarships each to senior members
and cadets. One hundred current and former CAP cadets
were admitted to the Class of 2010 at the Armed Forces
One hundred thirty-five teachers participated in the FlyA-Teacher program. Two hundred fifty-two educators
attended the Aerospace Excellence Award Program at
Adams State College in Colorado.
CAP established 78 new units with 1,587 members.
Twenty-six of the new squadrons had more than 100
members. A cadets-only back to school recruitment drive
attracted 3,497 new cadets. Alaska Wing’s Kodiak
Composite Squadron won the national recruiting
challenge with a 176% membership increase.
The National Board replaced the CAP News (founded
in1969 to replace the CAP Times) with a bi-monthly color
magazine, the CAP Volunteer featuring stories about CAP
activities and personnel, and published many more
illustrations than were possible with the previous format.
CAP’s branding initiative was in progress. Its goal was to
determine the best way to present CAP to the
membership, the public, and the media.
During 2007, CAP participated in the longest and one of
the most expensive search and rescue missions in modern
times in search of aviation enthusiast Steve Fossett, who
disappeared on a flight in Nevada. Fossett did not file a
flight plan. More than 45 CAP aircraft were involved, but
the crash site was not discovered until 2008. The ARCHER
system was used in the Steve Fossett search, as well as to
track flooding in the Midwest, and a major insect
infestation on Federal lands. After more than three
decades of use, inadvertent activation of ELTs remained a
major problem for CAP, diverting critical resources.

CAP flew 300 search missions, resulting in 103 saves. CAP
flew relief missions in flood-devastated parts of
Wisconsin, Washington, and Texas. Fifty Kansas Wing
members assisted in relief efforts after a series of
tornadoes in the state. In California, Georgia, and Florida,
aircrews searched for survivors of major forest fires.
CAP participated in North American Air Defense
Command (NORAD) exercises by simulating terrorist
intrusions into Air Defense Identification Zones and Flight
Restricted Zones, particularly in the National Capital
region. CAP aircrews searched for survivors of major
forest fires. CAP assisted US Customs and the DEA in
confiscating $225 million worth of illegal drugs.
CAP upgraded its communications system by acquiring
6,000 VHF mobile radios, 2,500 portable VHF radios, 400
land base repeaters, 100 tactical VHF repeaters, and
10,000 UHF intra-squad (ISR) radios. CAP also spent $2.5
million on additional communications equipment.
The National Board was the governing body of Civil Air
Patrol. It had eleven members and selected the CAP
National Commander and Vice Commander. CAP
membership stood at 56,510. Of that number, 22,009
were cadets and 1,046 Aerospace Education Members.
CAP adopted computerized financial and logistical plans
and records. This enabled the organization to accurately
track financial resources and supplies and equipment.
The School Enrichment Program was designed to provide
leadership training, character building, and physical
fitness to K-12 students. Aerospace Education was an
important element of the program. More than 1,200
cadets participated in special activities. One hundred sixty
cadets participated in the National Cadet Competition
(color guard and drill team), and 64 cadets participated in
IACE. Fifteen CAP wings hosted foreign cadets.
CAP created a program called Training Leaders of Cadets.
It provided a two-day course on how best to manage a
successful cadet program, and teach leadership to youth.


CAP developed a program called MARS (Making
Aerospace Real for Students). This program was intended
to recruit educators as CAP Aerospace Education
Members so that they could become a force multiplier for
AE, reaching out to thousands of students.
A new CAP Public Affairs Manual was introduced to assist
unit Public Affairs officers in honing their skills. The PAO
Academy trained 90 public affairs officers from 40 wings.
The state governments of Alaska and Pennsylvania each
provided over half a million dollars in support to CAP.
Eight other states provided $100,000 each.
In 2008, CAP increased its involvement in Homeland
Security. CAP aircraft flew training missions in the
National Capital area to allow Air Force to utilize F-16s to
evaluate Air Force response to aerial terrorist intrusions.
CAP flew radar calibration flights and acted as targets for
air-defense forces. CAP flew its one millionth anti-terror
sortie this year
CAP flew more than 2,500 missions, saving 91 lives. CAP
responded in the aftermath of Hurricane Ike, taking
490,000 high definition photos. Similarly, in the wake of
Hurricane Gustav, CAP flew 80 sorties documenting
hurricane damage. CAP provided similar support after
tornadoes in 16 states from Texas to New Hampshire. CAP
also flew missions after severe flooding in Colorado,
Arkansas, and Alabama, documenting flood damage. Four
thousand six hundred qualified ground team members
and 1,800 ground team leaders responded to
emergencies this year.
CAP’s WMIRS (Web Mission Information Reporting
System) enabled CAP to track the details of CAP
emergency services missions, and to manage flight
budgets during missions. The CAPabilities Handbook
listed CAP mission capabilities and identified the point of
contact to request a mission.
Errant ELTs continued to be a major problem, diverting
resources away from more pressing matters and
potentially life-threatening missions. CAP began phasing
out analog ELTs and replaced them with digital versions

that could interface with the international search and
rescue satellite, COSPAS-SARSAT. The new equipment
proved more reliable and reduced the number of false
distress calls. CAP spent $30 million to upgrade
communications equipment. CAP spent an additional $14
million to upgrade VHF stations to HF-SSB radios.
CAP implemented a process of consolidating aircraft
maintenance at centralized contract facilities around the
nation to reduce costs while standardizing maintenance.
CAP had three aircraft accidents, one of which resulted in
two deaths. Nonetheless, CAP’s accident rate was half
that of the national general aviation average.
CAP flew 13,535 orientation flights in 2008. CAP operated
36 National Cadet Special Activities, with 1,064 cadets
benefitting. The Evergreen Aviation Academy, sponsored
by Evergreen International Aviation, Inc., introduced
cadet participants to the aviation business, including
maintenance and helicopter operations.
The latest edition of CAP’s AE textbook, Aerospace: The
Journey to Flight, evolved over time into a 675 page, 27
chapter all color publication. The text was linked to other
publications, and stressed STEM (Science, Technology,
Engineering and Math) subjects useful in an aerospace
education environment.
The Making Aerospace Real for Students Program was the
central element in CAP’s AE. This consisted of developing
AE curricula, classroom materials, online resources,
grants and training, while providing continuing education
for educators at AE workshops. The Satellite Tool Kit
contained software to help cadets analyze space and
satellite orbits. The CAP Model Rocketry Achievement
Program encouraged cadets to design increasingly
complicated model rocket designs.
CAP participated in Wreaths Across America, a national
program that lays wreaths annually at veterans’


Author’s Note: Beginning in 2009, CAP Annual Reports were
discontinued and the information previously presented in them
was now incorporated into CAP’s annual Financial Report (FR).

During 2009, CAP flew 1,600 missions, with 72 saves. CAP
flew 90% of Air Force authorized rescue missions. CAP
operated 500 aircraft, many of which had the ARCHER
system or Garmin glass cockpit technology. Two were
equipped as Surrogate Predators to train Air Force drone
CAP added 2,000 new cadets this year, resulting in a total
cadet force of 24,000. CAP provided 22,000 orientation
flights for CAP Cadets and 2,000 for AFJROTC cadets.
Sixteen hundred teacher Aerospace Education members
taught 96,000 students. Maureen Adams, an AE member
from Texas Wing, was chosen for the NASA Teachers in
Space program. CAP’s K-6 Aerospace Education Program
provided learning in reading and STEM subjects,
character building, careers, and physical fitness, all in a
drug-free environment.
During 2010, CAP was a major responder to the massive
Gulf Oil Spill, CAP’s largest emergency services mission
since World War II. Two hundred eighty-seven CAP
members from ten wings flew for 118 days. During the
year, CAP had 113 saves while conducting search
missions. CAP flew 10,000 hours in drug interdiction
missions, resulting in the seizure by Federal authorities of
$1.36 billion in illegal drugs. CAP also flew 150 flying
missions in support of Homeland Security. CAP flew flood
relief missions in the Upper Midwest, Ohio Valley and the
Northeast United States.
CAP developed ORMS (Operational Resource
Management System), a computer database to more
efficiently manage and control assets.
CAP’s cadet strength went up 9.5%, to 26,157 cadets.
CAP’s total membership reached over 61,000. CAP flew
28,000 cadet orientation flights and 10,000 glider flights
for the year. A CAP team from Florida Wing won the Air
Force Association’s CyperPatriot Award competition.

National Headquarters published New Horizons, A Guide
for Cadet to Senior Transition, to assist in recruiting cadets
into the senior member program. Historically, the
number of cadets making the transition had been less
than optimal.
CAP continued to support Wreaths Across America. CAP
sponsored 39,000 wreaths this year, and provided honor
guards for ceremonies.
For 2011, CAP search missions saved 54 lives. CAP also
responded to floods in Missouri and South Dakota, flying
39 flood relief missions. CAP received 123 requests for
disaster relief. CAP flew 4,367 hours in support of
Homeland Security missions. Eight CAP aircraft flew the
coastline of Hawaii to broadcast a warning of a possible
Tsunami. Spring tornadoes resulted in 300 deaths. CAP
responded through the Midwest and Middle South to
assist in tornado relief and to provide aerial photos of
affected areas to assist in rescue and recovery operations.
Northeast Region CAP responded in the aftermath of
Hurricane Irene, providing logistical and communications
CAP flew 4,367 hours in support of Homeland Security
missions. CAP also assisted in drug interdiction missions
that resulted in seizing illegal drugs worth $475 million
and 212 arrests.
CAP upgraded its radio net to narrow band. Infrared
cameras were installed on some CAP aircraft to facilitate
finding victims of aircraft crashes. Some CAP aircraft were
equipped with video cameras. CAP acquired two Cessna
T206H Turbo Stationairs and 17 Cessna 182 Skylanes.
Exploitation Portable) kits were distributed to emergency
services personnel in order to stream live still photo and
video images from aircraft to emergency operations
CAP received the World Peace Mission’s World Peace
Prize for providing disaster relief and humanitarian


Aerospace Education programs reached 125,000 K-12
students across the country. CAP continued to support
STEM training for Cadets and AE student. The Air Force
Association assisted by providing a grant of $22,000.
CAP again received an award in the CyberPatriot
competition. Participants were given realistic cyber
security problems to solve.
Beginning in 2012, the annual Financial Report contained
a new page called CAP by the Numbers. This page was a
summary of CAP statistics for the year. CAP flew 703
missions, saving 32 lives. CAP membership stood at
60,847, of whom 26,384 were cadets. CAP operated
8,773 communications stations. CAP flew 191
counterdrug missions and 719 state support missions.
CAP’s flights cost only $120 to $160 per flying hour,
considerably less than the military and civilian
alternatives. CAP flew 90% of Air Force authorized search
CAP responded to over 50 disasters, including hurricanes,
tsunamis, winter storms, flooding, tornadoes, and forest
fires. Twenty CAP wings responded to Hurricane Sandy,
and provided 158,000 digital photos of the hurricane’s
impact. This enabled resources to be directed at the
hardest hit areas first.
CAP flew 29,856 cadet orientation flights. Fifty cadets
participated in IACE, and 4,936 attended summer
encampments. Three hundred twenty-four attended
flight academies. Over 1,000 cadets attended one of 30
cadet Special Activities.
CAP influenced 220,000 K-12 students through its AE
programs. CAP developed robotics modules containing 21
activities; a satellite imagery module for identifying
aerospace objects; and a model aircraft program
featuring radio control plans. These were designed to
generate cadet interest in STEM careers.
CAP’s Chaplain Corps had 487 Chaplains and 327
character development instructors. They participated in
over 33,000 events and served over 128,000 volunteer

The Government Accountability Office (GAO) issued a
report to Congress in 2012 that identified CAP
capabilities, and recommended greater integration of
Department of Homeland Security, Civil Air Patrol, and
Coast Guard Auxiliary assets for better use in homeland
security missions.
During 2013, CAP had almost 60,000 members, 25,000 of
whom were cadets. CAP operated 550 corporate aircraft
and 47 gliders in 1,483 squadrons. CAP flew 69 missions,
with 44 saves. This year, CAP acquired 11 Cessna Turbo
206s and 45 new vehicles.
CAP provided $300,000 in college and flight scholarships,
and provided 32,893 cadet orientation flights. CAP’s
Aerospace Education Program included more than 30
STEM products that were used by 25,000 cadets and
250,000 K-12 students in America’s schools. Sixteen
thousand students benefitted from CAP’s K-6 Aerospace
Connections in Education Program. Twenty-five thousand
cadets received instruction in CAP’s Core Values of
Integrity, Volunteer Service, Excellence, and Respect.
Aerial photography comprised 80% of CAP’s emergency
services missions, especially in the aftermath of natural
disasters. Data collected was analyzed by WMIRS to
determine where the greatest need for assistance
CAP flew 1,250 hours in support of NORAD’s Homeland
Security mission. CAP also flew 142 search missions,
comprising 85% of all Air Force authorized search and
rescue missions.
CAP provided assistance in 1,053 state missions, including
providing aerial assistance after a major mudslide in
Washington State and a dangerous sinkhole in Louisiana.
CAP also assisted in flying aerial reconnaissance in
support of the Super Bowl in New Jersey and the
Presidential Inauguration in Washington, DC.
CAP’s Cellphone/Radar Forensics teams analyzed data
from these sources to locate lost planes and individuals.
Two teams located over 30 people with this system.

CAP operated 7,641 VHF/FM stations, plus 1,240 HF
stations, and 695 VHF/M repeaters.
The CAP National Historical Journal (NHJ) began
electronic publication. The Journal contained quarterly
essays on aviation history and pioneers, and air-power
related articles of military and civilian significance.
During 2014, CAP’s Aerospace Education STEM Program
reached out to 25,000 Cadets and 300,000 K-12 students.
CAP distributed 90,000 STEM Kits to squadron AE officers,
educator members of CAP, and AFJROTC instructors. The
CyberPatriot program continued to be very successful in
orienting cadets to careers in computers and cyber
The TOP (Teacher Orientation Program) provided
orientation flights for AE educators where they could
then share their experiences with their students.
CAP provided 29,202 orientation flights to cadets, and
$60,000 in scholarships.
CAP flew 669 searches, saving 85 lives. Five of these lives
were saved due to the efforts of CAP’s Cell Phone
Forensics Team. CAP had 30,000 emergency services
certified members, of whom 9,000 aircrew and 4,000
ground team members participated in this year’s
missions. CAP flew 233 counterdrug missions, assisting in
the seizure of $1.28 billion in illegal drugs that resulted in
530 arrests. CAP also flew 226 air defense exercise
missions to assist in Air Force training.
CAP Color Guards participated in the Wreaths Across
America Program. Color Guards also presented the colors
at Memorial Day and Veterans Day ceremonies, as well as
at the funeral of Veterans.
CAP developed a Surrogate Unmanned Aircraft System
(SUAS) that allowed its aircraft to visually lock on and
track other aircraft using real-time motion video. This was
very useful in Air Force training missions. CAP’s National
Radar Analysis Team (ARAT) identified a missing plane’s
radar track and analyzed the data to locate the target.

CAP operated 5,461 VHF mobile and portable radio
stations, and 806 HF digital radios. CAP’s fleet of vehicles
included many that are equipped with mobile
communications equipment.
The K-6 Aerospace Connections in Education (ACE)
program was taught by 346 teachers to 20,000 students
in 34 states. It stressed academics, aerospace education,
character development, and physical fitness.
CAP provided 27,862 orientation flights to cadets this
year. More than 50 National cadet activities were offered,
and more than $60,000 in scholarships were awarded.
CAP National Commander Maj Gen Joe Vasquez signed a
memorandum of understanding with the American Red
Cross to work and train together.
On December 10, Speaker of the House John Boehner
presented the Congressional Gold Medal to Civil Air Patrol
for distinguished service to the nation during World War
II. National Commander Maj Gen Joe Vasquez and former
US Representative Lester Wolff, a veteran of CAP World
War II service, accepted the award on behalf of Civil Air
During 2015, CAP completed into its 75th Year with
activities in support of its continuing mission:
The CAP Mission: Supporting America’s communities with
emergency response, diverse aviation and ground
services, youth development and promotion of air, cyber
and space power.
CAP flew 863 search missions that resulted in 69 saves.
CAP flew 100 flood relief missions in South Carolina. The
purpose was to provide aerial damage assessment photos
to assist in prioritizing emergency assistance to the
victims. CAP also flew similar missions in response to
flooding in Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri,
Oklahoma, South Dakota, and Texas. Real-time aerial
photography remained the primary purpose of Civil Air
Patrol emergency services post-disaster missions.


As part of its Homeland Security mission, CAP assisted in
aerial reconnaissance that resulted in the seizure of $1.2
billion in illegal drugs, resulting in 753 arrests. CAP also
flew 190 air defense exercise missions in support of the
Air Force. CAP remains a force multiplier for the Air Force,
enabling the Air Force to assign missions to CAP that free
Air Force assets for other more vital needs.
California Wing assisted FEMA in photos of 232 square
miles of wild fires near Sacramento. CAP provided almost
5,000 high quality photos for use by federal and state
emergency services providers.
CAP missions cost $165 per flying hours. This compared
favorably with UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles or
drones) at $689 per hour, $7,444 per hour for a
helicopter, $9,835 per hours for a C-130. Similar
information provided to Corona Conferences (the Chief of
Staff of the Air Force’s annual meeting with senior Air
Force commanders) has favorably impressed Air Force
CAP had a fleet of 550 powered aircraft, 55 gliders, and
two hot air balloons. CAP’s aircraft fleet was one of the
largest single engine fleets in the world. CAP began
equipping its planes with the Cloud Cap TASE 400 sensor
system this year. It provided state of the art real-time
graphics for search missions and border control. CAP also
began installing Garmin VIRB cameras in its planes that
provided air photographs of areas immediately below the

interested in aviation-oriented careers in computers and
cyber security.
CAP provided cadets 27,862 orientation flights, and
continued to offer more than 50 national cadet activities
to eligible cadets. Fourteen-hundred cadets attended
summer encampments, and $60,000 in scholarships was
awarded to cadet recipients.
CAP continues to provide support to the American Red
Cross, transporting blood and other high-priority medical
cargoes and equipment. CAP cadets assist with Honor
Flights for older Veterans.
CAP volunteers assisted in many community support
activities, including Skyball XIII, a program that sends care
packages to Armed Forces personnel overseas, especially
in combat areas. CAP helped in raising $2.2 million for the
2016 Marks the 75th Anniversary of the creation of Civil
Air Patrol on 1 December 1941. This chapter was inspired
by the celebration of the birth of the Civil Air Patrol and
its growth over 75 years.

CAP operated a network of approximately 6,500 fixed and
approximately 5,500 mobile VHF radio stations. It also
had 806 HF stations.
CAP’s Chaplain Corps of over 900 chaplains and character
development instructors is the largest volunteer
chaplaincy in the United States. It has been in existence
for 65 of CAP’s 75 years.
CAP provided STEM education support to 150,000 K-12
students across the nation. The CyberPatriot program
continued to provide valuable insights to cadets

1941-2016: Over 300 Million Served

called the Iron Curtain. Wherever the Red (Soviet) Army
was garrisoned, a Communist regime under Soviet
control emerged, and a Communist government gained


orldwide terrorism grew dramatically in the first

control of China with Soviet support.

six months of this year. CAP will increasingly be

called upon to contribute to the nation’s security through

During the War, Civil Air Patrol assumed responsibility for

Homeland Defense missions in support of the Air Force

much of the Air Rescue Service’s homeland search and

and other government agencies. This is an opportunity for

rescue missions. As a result, CAP became more focused

Civil Air Patrol to rise to the occasion, as it did in 1941, and

on emergency services, and the Air Force increasingly did

increase its role as an integral part of National Defense

the same. Through the 1950s, the Air Force moved from

and Security.

high altitude bombers to even higher altitude ballistic
missiles. The Air Force (and later Navy missile launching

As we look back on the 75 years that CAP has served the

submarines as well) received the greatest part of the

nation, we see an organization created to augment the

defense budget. Air Force interest in Civil Air Patrol was

Army and Navy in defending America’s coasts against

largely based on CAP as a source of potential recruits and

possible homeland invasions as well as attacks on vital

as an augmentation to air rescue.

coastal shipping lanes in the Atlantic, Pacific, Gulf, and
Caribbean regions. While the Army and Navy initially
doubted the ability of civilian pilots to accomplish the


fter the launch of Sputnik in 1957 and the first
manned space flight in 1961, US Government

mission, they came to appreciate the importance of CAP’s

interest in Aerospace Education in its own right increased

contribution to the war effort. As the Allies gained control

dramatically. In response to public perception that the

of the seas and the pressure of U-Boat attacks diminished

United States was behind the Soviet Union in technology

after 1943, CAP’s primary mission was to provide ground

(STEM in today’s terminology), CAP dramatically

school and other technical training to potential recruits to

increased its programs in Aerospace Education, for the

the Army Air Forces and the Naval Air Forces, and this

public through various school AE programs and for Cadets

remained so for the duration of the War.

through squadron and national programs.

Demobilization began in late 1945 and progressed rapidly

In the 1960s, cadet membership peaked again after the

in 1946, reducing the Army and Air Forces into a stand-by

1962 Cuban Missile Crisis and continued during the early

force in support of the Allied occupation of Germany,

years of America’s involvement in Vietnam. When public

Austria, Japan, and Korea. The American Government did

support for the War turned sour in 1968 after the Tet

not anticipate the Soviet Union’s creation of a system of

Offensive, cadet membership plummeted until the

Soviet-dominated satellite states gathered behind what

exciting events associated with the end of the Cold War

World War II British Prime Minister Winston Churchill

and Operation Desert Storm in the Middle East. Cadet

membership, unlike senior membership, continually

550 modern aircraft equipped with the latest technology

peaked during times of national emergency. This was true

such as the ARCHER system. In its early years, CAP had

from World War II to 911. Unlike cadets, however, senior

over 30,000 radio stations; today it has over 6,000, which

members were often drafted or were reservists who were

seems like less at first glance, but with today’s

called up during national emergencies.

technology, with repeaters and satellite links, CAP truly is


doing more with less, and doing it better.
review of the narrative annual reports and

financial statements includes many outstanding

CAP’s Aerospace Education program has been central to

activities and programs that served the nation well…but

the teaching of aviation and space technology, not only to

much of it is routine, day to day recurring activities that

cadets, but to the public at large. Programs for teachers

were not glamorous but were essential to successful

are as much a force multiplier as CAP aircraft are to

mission accomplishments. CAP maintained a continuous

emergency services missions. One prepared teacher can

program of saving lives through search missions, flood

turn out hundreds, if not thousands, of students with an

reconnaissance, hurricane relief, and emergency radio

appreciation of aerospace education that serves the

nets. CAP also served the nation by participating in

interests of our country, a true force multiplier.

counter drug missions, coastal patrols during times of
heightened security, assisting in Air Force homeland

Cadet programs started in war as a source of recruits for

security training missions, and much more.

the Army Air Forces. Today, they have become a way to
teach cadets them about aviation, space, and STEM, and

As important as these missions were, one should not

to interest them in aerospace careers. Just as importantly,

forget the long-term legacy of Aerospace Education and

cadets receive training in leadership, responsibility,

cadet programs. One of the reasons why youth,

ethics, and values that will make them productive and

supported by their parents, joined CAP is that it was one

useful citizens and contribute to their success in life.

of the few places outside the home where ethics and
values were taught and expected to be followed. Schools,
which were once at the center of such training, no longer


here is CAP today? CAP has over 24,000 cadets
learning about leadership, aerospace, physical

were. Many children were not brought up to be like

fitness, and character development. Nearly 10% of all

cadets at the Air Force Academy, or CAP cadets, who did

new Air Force Academy cadets were CAP cadets. CAP

not lie, cheat, or steal, and who did not tolerate those

provides many local and national programs that allow

who do. They learned those values from Civil Air Patrol.

cadets to realize careers in aviation and the Air Force. CAP
provides workshops and programs for educators that

CAP has evolved over time. CAP began with Piper Cubs

work with students from kindergarten through college to

and surplus Air Force planes. Throughout its 75-year

provide quality education in STEM subjects and

history, CAP went through many transitions, today flying

aerospace education.

CAP’s approximately 35,000 senior members conduct

technologies and integrates national interests and values

90% of inland search and rescue missions at a very low

into its operations and programs. CAP has always met the

cost compared to other civilian and government

challenge and will always do so - Semper Vigilans.

resources. CAP saves an average of 78 lives a year.

It supports anti-drug efforts by law enforcement
agencies, and performs aerial reconnaissance as part of

Lt Col Richard B. Mulanax is CAP National History Staff Research
Division Head. He is retired Professor of History at Indian River
State College, where he taught for twenty years, and a retired
USAF Major and International Politico-Military Affairs Officer.

its support for homeland security, and provides a
communications network to not only operate its own
missions and programs, but to offer a backup to federal
military and civilian resources.


ithin the last year, CAP has been more fully
integrated into the Total Force mission, which

consists of the active Air Force, Air Force Reserve, Air
National Guard, and the Air Force Auxiliary, Civil Air
Patrol. In 2010, the Government Accountability noted
CAP’s potential of service to the Department of
Homeland Security through support of Air Force
homeland security missions.

The rise in terrorist activity in the last year points toward
greater involvement by CAP in supporting the Armed
Forces and other Government departments in defending
the nation. Weather related natural disasters are on the
increase, and this will also be a call to action for CAP
Emergency Services.

Note: Maj Kurt Efinger, National History Staff CAP History
Journal Editor, provided invaluable editing assistance with
the manuscript of the Chronology and formatted it for
Journal publication. Maj Gwen Brown, National History
Staff Research Specialist, researched the data provided in
Appendices A and B.

What direction will CAP take in the future? It will continue
the legacy of the last 75 years, with its three core missions
of Emergency Services, Aerospace Education, and Cadet
Programs—unchanged since World War II. As the past led
CAP to the present, the present will lead CAP to the
future, as Civil Air Patrol incorporates new cutting edge

Appendix A: CAP Command Structure 1941-2016
National Commanders US Army Air Forces (USAAF):
Maj. Gen. John F. Curry, USAAF, 1 Dec 1941 to 10 Mar 1942
Brig. Gen. Earle L. Johnson, USAAF, 24 Mar 1942 to 21 Feb 1947 (Deceased)
Brig. Gen. Frederic H. Smith, USAAF, 21 Feb 1947 to 1 Oct 1947

Col. D. Harold Byrd, CAP, 28 Apr 1959 to 26 Apr 1960
Col. William C. Whelen, CAP, 26 Apr 1960 to 8 Sep 1962
Col. Paul W. Turner, CAP, 8 Sep 1962 to 30 Oct 1965
Brig. Gen. Lyle w. Castle, CAP, 30 Oct 1965 to 18 Oct 1968
Brig. Gen. F. Ward Reilly, CAP, 18 Oct 1968 to 10 Oct 1970
Brig. Gen. Samuel H. duPont, Jr., CAP, 10 Oct 1970 to 14 Oct 1973
Brig. Gen. William M. Patterson, CAP, 14 Oct 1973 to 18 Sep 1975

National Commanders US Air Force:
Maj. Gen. Lucas V. Beau, USAF, 1 Oct 1947 to 31 Dec 1955
Maj. Gen. Walter R. Agee, USAF, 1 Jan 1956 to 31 Mar 1959
Brig. Gen. Stephen D. McElroy, USAF, 1 Apr 1959 to 15 Dec 1961
Col. Paul C. Ashworth, USAF, 15 Dec 1961 to 31 Jul 1964
Col. Joe L. Mason, USAF, 1 Aug 1964 to 31 May 1967
Brig. Gen. William. W. Wilcox, USAF, 31 May 1967 to 31 Oct 1968
Maj. Gen. Walter B. Putnam, USAF, 1 Nov 1968 to 31 Oct 1969
Brig. Gen. Richard N. Ellis, USAF, 1 Nov 1969 to 31 Oct 1972
Brig. Gen. Leslie J. Westberg, USAF, 1 Nov 1972 to 31 Aug 1975.
USAF Executive Directors:
Brig. Gen. Carl S. Miller, USAF, 29 Aug 1975 to 31 Oct 1977
Brig. Gen. Paul E. Gardner, USAF, 1 Nov 1977 to 31 Jul 1980
Brig. Gen. Horace W. “Whitye” Miller, USAF, 1 Aug 1980 to 1 Sep 1981
Brig. Gen. David L. Patton, USAF, 1 Sep 1981 to 31 May 1984
Col. John T. Massingale, Jr. USAF, 1 Jun 1984 to Oct 1989
Col. Clyde O. Westbrook, Jr. USAF, Oct 1989 to Jun 1990
Col. Joseph M. Nall, USAF, Jun 1990 to Aug 1992
Col. Ronald T. Sampson, USAF, Aug 1992 to 8 Mar 1995
Senior Air Force Advisors:
Col. Garland W. Padgett, Jr. USAF, 8 Mar 1995 to 4 May 1998,
Col. Dennis B. Parkhurst, USAF, 4 May 1998 to 16 July 2001,
Col. Albert A. Allenback, USAF, 16 July 2001 to 12 July 2002,
Col. George C. Vogt, USAF, 12 July 2002 to 6 Oct 2005,
Col. Russell D. Hodgkins Jr., USAF, 6 Oct 2005 to 14 April 2009,
Col. William R. Ward 14 April 2009 to 30 June 2011,
Col Paul D. Gloyd, USAF, (Interim) 10 June to 15 July 2011,
Col. George H. Ross III, USAF, 15 July 2011 to 4 Oct 2011,
Col Paul D. Gloyd, USAF, 4 Oct 2011 to 6 Aug 2014,
Col Michael D. Tyynismaa, USAF, 6 Aug 2014 to Present.

National Commanders CAP:
Brig. Gen. William M. Patterson, CAP, 1 Sep 1975 to 19 Sep 1976
Brig. Gen. Thomas C. Casaday, CAP, 19 Sep 1976 to 30 Sep 1979
Brig. Gen. Johnnie Boyd, CAP, 30 Sep 1979 to 14 Aug 1982
Brig. Gen. Howard Brookfield, CAP, 14 Aug 1982 to 4 Aug 1984
Brig. Gen. William B. Cass, CAP, 4 Aug 1984 to 22 Mar 1986
Maj. Gen. Eugene E. Harwell, CAP, 22 Mar 1986 to 11 Aug 1990
Brig. Gen. Warren J. Barry, CAP, 11 Aug 1990 to 14 Aug 1993
Brig. Gen Richard L. Anderson, CAP, 14 Aug 1993 to 10 Aug 1996
Brig. Gen. Paul M. Bergman, CAP, 10 Aug 1996 to 6 Mar 1998
Brig. Gen. James C. Bobick, CAP, 6 Mar 1998 to 18 Aug 2001
Maj. Gen. Richard L. Bowling, CAP, 18 Aug 2001 to 21 Aug 2004
Maj. Gen. Dwight H. Wheless, CAP, 21 Aug 2004 to 1 July 2005
Maj. Gen. Tony Pineda, CAP, 1 July 2005 to 6 Aug 2007
Maj. Gen. Amy S. Courter, CAP, 6 Aug 2007 to 20 Aug 2011
Maj. Gen. Charles L. Carr Jr., CAP, 20 Aug 2011 to 14 August 2014
Maj. Gen. Joseph L. Vasquez, CAP, 14 August 2014 to present.
NHQ Stations:
Dupont Circle Building Washington DC, 1 Dec 1941 (original unit)
HQ 32nd AAF Base Unit (CAP) 500 Fifth Avenue, N, New York, 1 Jun 1943
Texas & Pacific Building, Fort Worth Texas, 1 May 1945
Bolling Field (later Bolling AFB), Washington D.C. 12 Feb 1946
Ellington AFB, Houston Texas 8 Aug 1959
Maxwell AFB, Montgomery Alabama. 15 Jun 1967-2016

Chairman of the National Board CAP:
Col. George A. Stone, CAP, 26 May 1948 to 20 Aug 1948 (Deceased)
Gen. Carl A. Spaatz, USAF-Ret, 26 Aug 1948 to 27 Apr 1959 (Resigned)

APPENDIX B: CAP Commanders and Key Staff, 2017
Civil Air Patrol Command Structure (as of 14 Feb 2017)

National Commander
National Vice Commander
National Executive Officer
CAP-USAF Commander / Council Advisor
Chief Operating Officer / Council Advisor

Maj Gen Joseph R. Vazquez, CAP
Brig Gen. Larry F. Myrick, CAP
Col Larry J. Ragland, CAP
Col Michael D. Tyynismaa, USAF
Mr. John Salvador

Northeast Region
Col Daniel M. LeClair, CAP
Connecticut Wing Commander
Col. Kenneth E. Chapman, CAP
Maine Wing Commander
Col James R. Jordan, CAP
Massachusetts Wing Commander
Col Everett C. Hume, CAP
New Hampshire Wing Commander
Col Kevin N. Harbison, CAP
New Jersey Wing Commander
Col Stephen M. Tracy, CAP
New York Wing Commander
Col Thomas Carello, CAP
Pennsylvania Wing Commander
Col Gary L. Fleming, CAP
Rhode Island Wing Commander
Col Richard F. Hill, CAP
Vermont Wing Commander
Col Richard A. Lizzari, CAP
Middle East Region
Col John M. Knowles, CAP
Delaware Wing Commander
Col Michael Moyer, CAP
Maryland Wing Commander
Col Joseph R. Winter, CAP
National Capital Wing Commander
Col Bruce B. Heinlein, CAP
North Carolina Wing Commander
Col R. Jason Bailey, CAP
South Carolina Wing Commander
Col Francis H. Smith, Jr., CAP
Virginia Wing Commander
Col Dean E. Gould, CAP
West Virginia Wing Commander
Col Paul McCroskey, CAP
Great Lakes Region
Region Commander
Col Edward D. Phelka, CAP
Illinois Wing Commander
Col Jerry G. Scherer, CAP
Indiana Wing Commander
Col Philip E. Argenti, CAP
Kentucky Wing Commander
Col David A. Kantor, CAP
Michigan Wing Commander
Col Curtis J. Boehmer, CAP
Ohio Wing Commander
Col Theodore L. Shaffer, CAP
Wisconsin Wing Commander
Col Rose M. Hunt, CAP

Southeast Region
Region Commander
Col G. Barry Melton, CAP
Alabama Wing Commander
Col James B. Lewis, CAP
Florida Wing Commander
Col Henry Irizarry, CAP
Georgia Wing Commander
Col Richard J. Greenwood, CAP
Mississippi Wing Commander
Col Mallory D. Woodcock, CAP
Puerto Rico Wing Commander
Col. Carlos Fernandez, CAP
Tennessee Wing Commander
Col Arlinda C. Bailey, CAP
North Central Region
Region Commander
Col Regena M. Aye, CAP
Iowa Wing Commander
Col Anita S. Elliott, CAP
Kansas Wing Commander
Col Linette M. Lahan, CAP
Minnesota Wing Commander
Col James A. Garlough, CAP
Missouri Wing Commander
Col John R. O'Neill, CAP
Nebraska Wing Commander
Col Darrell W. Nelson, CAP
North Dakota Wing Commander
Col John P. Steiner, CAP
South Dakota Wing Commander
Col David G. Small, Jr., CAP
Southwest Region
Region Commander
Col Mark E. Smith, CAP
Arizona Wing Commander
Col Martha C. Morris, CAP
Arkansas Wing Commander
Col Arthur R. Formanek, CAP
Louisiana Wing Commander
Col Thomas Barnard, CAP
New Mexico Wing Commander
Col Mike Lee, CAP
Oklahoma Wing Commander
Col Dale E. Newell, CAP
Texas Wing Commander
Col Sean Crandall, CAP
Rocky Mountain Region
Region Commander
Col Thomas R. Kettell, CAP
Colorado Wing Commander
Col Celeste R. Gamache, CAP
Idaho Wing Commander
Col George Breshears, CAP
Montana Wing Commander
Col Nolan S. Teel, CAP
Utah Wing Commander
Col Jonathan Niedfeldt, CAP
Wyoming Wing Commander
Col Jeffrey L Johnson, CAP

Region Commander
Alaska Wing Commander
California Wing Commander
Hawaii Wing Commander
Nevada Wing Commander
Oregon Wing Commander
Washington Wing Commander

Pacific Region
Col John Stokes, CAP
Capt Carl F. Siebe, CAP
Col Alan W. Ferguson, CAP
Col Patrick A. Collins, CAP
Col Carol Lee Lynn, CAP
Col William G. Ray, CAP
Col James P. Furlong, CAP