File #1512: "FINAL CAP NHJ Volume 1, Issue, 3 APR-JUN 2014.pdf"

FINAL CAP NHJ Volume 1, Issue, 3 APR-JUN 2014.pdf

PDF Text


…a journal of
CAP history,
feature articles,
scholarly works,
and stories of

CAP National Historical Journal
Volume I, Issue III: APR-JUN 2014

The Civil Air Patrol National Historical Journal is published quarterly by professional volunteer staff. As academic historians by trade,
we recognize the demand for quality publications reflecting a variety of interests to Civil Air Patrol readers, and strive to offer the
best in feature and thought provoking articles. We trust you will enjoy what the e-journal has to offer and will consider contributing
to the mission of our staff in providing a forum for the great traditions of our organization.

Editors Note: The 70th anniversary
celebrations of the 6 June 1944 invasion of
Normandy coupled with the events falling
not long after Memorial Day have recently
been featured in the print, social, and
broadcast media to the point of educating
even the reluctant historian. The CAP NHJ
features two stories related to World War
II—one highlighting the CAP Congressional
Gold Medal award conferred upon CAP
volunteers, and the other, a personal story
shared by the CAP NHJ editor, K.J. Efinger.
These pages will bring remembrance to the
many sacrifices service members, as well as
volunteers, have made over the years.

A Bridge Not So Far
K. J. Efinger
It often comes down to the so-called “curveballs”
that life delivers from time-to-time. These
unexpected events may be negative or positive.
Sometimes they just give us pause, and then we
move forward with little reflection. Conversely,
the circumstance may be so impacting that we
never see things quite the same as we once did.
One thing is for certain, they either alter how we
perceive our world at that moment, or they have
a lasting impact. The following story reveals a
connection with a faraway place in time that
would otherwise have been only part of a story I
once heard many years ago.


hough I received the message at
the end of August a few years back
in a social networking inbox, I really did
not pay much attention to it. The fact is

I decided to put off reading
any of my messages until
the weekend. A year or so
prior, I created a networking
page for the families of
veterans who were affiliated
with the 507th Parachute
Infantry Regiment—a
“bastard” unit attached to
the 82d and 17th airborne
divisions during World War
II. Only recently has there
been a greater interest
coming from relatives of
former troopers. For the
most part, the activity has
originated with reenactors—Belgian, Norman,
and British—who are
involved not only with
preserving the history
surrounding the events of
Photo: Gustav J. Efinger, Efinger family archives©


Russell Weigley articulates a not so often recognized fact that Billy Mitchell
was among one of the first to propose the use of, and integration of airborne troops
(paratroopers) in warfare. The war ended before his theories on air-assault could be put
into practice. Germany would fundamentally succeed where others did not in proving
the efficacy of an airborne assault force in war. For more information, see Hunters from
the Sky: The German Parachute Corps 1940-1945, by Charles Whiting. Russell F. Weigley,
The American Way of War: A History of United States Military Strategy and Policy
(Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1977), 224.


Normandy, but the memories of those
who flew, jumped, and came ashore as
part of Operation Overlord. When I saw
the surname on the latest request
(Vertenten), I concluded it was likely a
Belgian who was asking to join the
group. For all their involvement,
attention to detail, and respect for the
many who sacrificed their lives during
that spectacular event in history, I am
thankful. The downside, however, was
that I received numerous requests per
week and had to filter through them
when time permitted. I assumed this
particular message was just one of
those many requests. Needless to say, I
was surprised when my wife asked me
about an email she received a day or
two afterwards. My response to her
was that this person must be desperate
to join the group, and I would address
the issue in a few days. Her reply took
me aback, when she said “no, it’s
something about your father, I think
you need to take a look at this.” I read
the message, and soon realized it was
from a Belgian national who said he
found an artifact he believed belonged
to my father. That still small voice told
me that I needed to go back and read
the message in my inbox. I was correct
about the correspondence coming from
a Belgian who was in fact interested in
WWII and the Allied invasion of
Normandy. I was wrong, however,
about his sending a request to join the
networking page established for the


s the young man, Robin Vertenten,
tells the story, he was excavating
an area in close proximity to the foot of
the stone bridge going over the
Merderet River at La Fière and
happened upon an object buried nearly

a foot below the surface among several German shell casings. Most
interesting is that the spot is roughly 200 feet north of where the
hallowed “Iron Mike” monument stands.2 The bridge crossing the
Merderet was no small
objective when it came
to holding back the
German response to
the Allied invasion.
As a military historian, I
knew of the battle that
took place there, but
by no means consider
myself an expert.
There was not the least
bit of skepticism that
he had found
that it could definitively be identified with my father. It took longer to
process this, and often I shake my head and blink a few times marveling
as to the incredible nature of the find. There is much skill involved with
using a metal detector—in particular knowing what to pursue and what
to let lie so as to avoid digging up an acre-sized plot of land in the
process. As it turns out, Robin is part of a unique culture of men and
women who—as well as being consummate “treasure-hunters”—are
also keen to return to families or veterans the objects whose
provenance is known. In this instance, the artifact in question was a
canteen cap marked “G Efinger” with the last four digits of my father’s
Army Serial Number (ASN) stamped clear as day.3 “Interesting” was my
first reaction. Were he alive, my father’s response would likely have
been something to the effect of, “Oh, that’s
where I lost it.”


y brother Glen and I have spent
countless hours attempting to
substantiate 507th troop movements and
locate families of troopers for nearly
eighteen years. Continued on page 5
Photo: Robin Vertenten©


Robin Vertenten, email to author, 20 June 2014.


Access to Archival Databases (AAD), (The National Archives), (Electronic Army Serial Number Merged File, ca. 1938 1946 (Enlistment Records); accessed June 10, 2014).


Recognizing and Verifying the
Pioneers: Explaining the
Congressional Gold Medal
Frank Blazich, Jr., Chief Historian

For the uninitiated, accurately providing detailed
information for Civil Air Patrol’s (CAP) Congressional
Gold Medal (CGM) database may seem like an unusual
requirement to enable a CAP veteran from World War II
to receive a bronze replica of the CGM. Having managed
the database along with Mr. Joe Hall at National
Headquarters since April 2013, I have been privy to
numerous inquiries from various historians, public
relations officers, the general public, and the national
commander. This short article is intended to explain the
requirements for eligibility, verification, and what steps
to take when needing to update entries in the database.


he Congressional Gold Medal is the highest civilian
award which can be bestowed by Congress. The
CAP medal, a design unique for this singular honor, is
dedicated to the service of all senior and cadet
members who served in an array of capacities during
World War II. CAP National Headquarters began its
CGM database in 2010 for the purposes of assembling
the names of verified World War II CAP veterans, living
and deceased, who served between 7 December 1941
and 2 September 1945, and for the living to feature
their service with the media effort pertaining to the
legislative effort and then the promotion of the award.
Unfortunately for the Civil Air Patrol, personnel records
from World War II have been lost to the annals of time.
For the senior members, those who served on active
duty (coastal patrol, courier, border liaison, tow target,
forest patrol) can almost entirely be verified from
databases of Air Medal recipients and belligerency
certificates. Beyond these records the verification
process rests entirely on the records of the individual
veterans and their families, or from wing and squadron
records, if the latter still exist. There are no personnel
files on any World War II CAP member in the possession
of the Chief Historian or National Headquarters.

This problem is especially acute for World War II CAP
cadets. Squadrons, and not National Headquarters,
bore responsibility for maintaining cadet personnel
With the lack of archival personnel records, the
verification process has gradually involved into its
present form. Prior to even adding anyone to the
database, it is highly recommended that the submitters
gather requested information prior to entry. Once an
entry is placed into the database, the submitter cannot
make changes. They can contact the Chief Historian and
other staff at National Headquarters to change aspects
of the information internally, but depending on time,
this can be a slow process. It is recommended that the
following be first collected and checked for accuracy:
1. Full name (last, first, middle initial, suffix)
2. Date of birth and/or date of death
3. Rank as a CAP member (if known)
4. CAP identification number (if known)
5. Current mailing address, phone number, and email
address: If deceased, the hometown and state of CAP
service is most desired. Otherwise use the last known
mailing address for the person. You can enter nine
zeroes for the phone number if necessary. If you are the
sponsor or next-of-kin, you can enter your contact
information on the form, but where possible, please do
not use it for the veteran if they are deceased.
6. Documentation: This is the most essential piece of
the required information and the difference between a
quick confirmation or a lengthy research effort. Files
can now be uploaded into the database to document a
person’s CAP wartime service. If you are sponsoring an
individual, please note if they are still living should you
be unable to locate their birth date.
7. Contact information for next-of-kin or sponsor:
Please make sure your phone number and email
address are correct. Errors have resulted in bounced
emails or awkward phone calls. If you are a sponsor and
the veteran is deceased, you must locate the next-of-kin
for the veteran. Even if the deceased veteran is clearly
eligible, the replica medal will not be provided to the
sponsor unless the sponsor is next-of-kin. Otherwise,
the entry will be removed from the database entirely or

marked ineligible until the next-of-kin and other family
is located. This step is very important in the process.
The documentation portion of the verification process is
unquestionably the most important part of the
verification process. Just what exactly counts as
evidence encompasses an array of material. Archival
documents listing a person’s name, date, and direct
reference to the CAP is preferable. This can take the
form of promotion or assignment paperwork, letters of
thanks, unit rosters, even scrapbooks. Newspaper
articles listing a person’s name and service with the CAP
are also solid pieces of evidence, as are photographs of
the veteran in their CAP uniform from the war. In the
most extreme cases, verification has been achieved by
family locating uniform insignia and items in
conjunction with collaborating information regarding
former unit commanders, unit names and locations, and


hat if there is no documentation? No
photographs? The options are as follows. In
several cases the Chief Historian has turned to microfilm
and archival records to verify the details of veteran
reminiscences, either directly from the veteran or from
their next-of-kin. Here is where oral history can be
extremely useful, and if need be recordings or
statements of a veteran’s experience, provided the
information can be corroborated, will be accepted as
verifying evidence. If you or someone you know is ever
having difficulty with locating evidence, contact the
Chief Historian, and he will provide guidance and advice
to further your search while checking his own records to
see if the evidence is already in hand.
Once all the required pieces of the puzzle are
assembled, the actual verification process is extremely
quick, taking little more than five minutes. If the
documentation is missing, the process can take as long
as six months, predominantly via email or telephone
correspondence. The goal is to ensure that everyone,
cadet and senior, who served in the CAP during World
War II, a group that numbers over 200,000, is properly
recognized for their service. If you know someone who
qualifies, please check the database, available at the
following web address:

and see if they are listed. If not, follow the steps
outlined above and please enter the veteran’s
information. Should you have questions, please do not
hesitate to contact the Chief Historian or National
Col Frank A. Blazich,Jr., PhD is the Chief Historian at NHQ, and
serves as Historian, U.S. Navy Seabee Museum, Port
Hueneme, CA.

Links associated with the CAP CGM:
The entry form for the CGM database. Documentary
evidence can now be uploaded. Please note if you
are the sponsor, particularly if the veteran is
deceased, please list their wartime hometown and
state at the top. Place your contact information in
the sponsor section. The form can be obtained at
The CGM database listing those confirmed or
awaiting confirmation. You can visit this page to see
if the person(s) you have entered are confirmed.

Staff & Acknowledgements
National Commander
Maj Gen Charles Carr
Chief Historian
Col Frank A. Blazich Jr.
National Historical Editor
Lt Col Richard B. Mulanax
National Historical Journal Editor
Capt Kurt Efinger


(continued from page 2)
The historiography involved is exhaustive, and sources
must be credible and verifiable. In all that time, we have
mostly been disappointed to discover that many of the
veterans passed away before we could establish
contact. I spoke with only three veterans who knew my
father, and each had the same attitude as he: it was a
long time ago, and the memories were not so good. The
discovery of the canteen cap was something tangible—a
marker along the way, an object that spoke loudly to
“he was here.”


s a professional historian, I hold to the idea that
objects have stories. They are the physical
evidence of someone’s whereabouts, or something that
happened at some specific point in time. There is little
mystery as to where my father was and exactly what he
was doing—that is not the remarkable aspect. The
finding of the canteen cap after so many years, the fact
that it confirms his movements, and the incredible story
behind how my family ended up with it nearly seventy
years later, is where the real magic happens.
Dad was a trooper in the 507th PIR F Co. under the
command of Capt. Paul F. Smith when airborne units
began their plunge into occupied France on 6 June
1944.4 Though not listed on the jump rosters for
Normandy, we are presented with two other
possibilities—he was on one of the twelve missing
rosters, or he came ashore with the amphibious

landings on Utah Beach early that morning. Whatever
the case may be, and to what extent it can be
determined, is fundamentally the irrelevant minutia of

The objectives were simple on paper. As Geoffrey Perret
puts it, ""Bradley and Ridgeway shifted the 82nd eastward, so it
would drop near the town of Ste.- Mère-Église. It was to take the
town and the nearby crossings over the Merderet River. Its primary
mission was to block Germans trying to reach Utah and Omaha."
Isolating German forces so as to facilitate a successful invasion was a
must. Geoffrey Perret, There's a War to Be Won (New York: Random
House, 1991), 317.

Conversation with Capt. Smith's daughter Sandra, who
has been the de facto preservationist for the 507th histories for
many years. Capt. Smith is 98, and lives in Melbourne, Florida. He
retired a Maj. Gen. from the U.S. Army.

his arrival in Normandy. Incontrovertible evidence puts
him at La Fière—exactly when, and under what
circumstances may never be known. The division
commander, Gen. James Gavin himself, was present in
the early morning hours on 6 June.6 It stands to reason
that over the next few days troopers from the 82d
Airborne would pass through the area in the midst of
violent firefights and periods of eerie calm until the
objective of securing the bridgehead was met.


At the time of Operation Neptune, Dad’s Military
Occupational Specialty (MOS) was either 745 Rifleman,
or 506 Light Machine Gunner.8 In the final days of the
war, he was happily assigned to a mortar division
attached to the 17th Airborne9 shortly after his return
to base from Normandy in mid July 1944.10 He
remained in Europe until late 1945 after serving out his
days with the 82d Honor Guard outside Allied
Headquarters in Berlin with one thought in mind—
wooing my mother into marrying him.
The battle that took place from 6-9 June was a bloody
one. The idea that the German forces were realistically
ill-prepared to launch counteroffensives should not be
accepted under the pretext that they were incapable of
it. There is a difference. German commanders—in

Stephen E. Ambrose, D-Day June 6, 1944: The Climactic
Battle of World War II (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1994), 309.

Shelby L. Stanton, World War II Order of Battle (New
York: Galahad Books, 1991), 153.

It is nearly impossible to determine with any degree of
certainty as to when the assignments were made. Only the duration
of each MOS assignment was specified on the Separation
Qualification Record. Army of the United States, Separation
Qualification Record ps-70 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government
Printing Office, 1945), WD AGO 100 1 JUL 1945.

81-mm mortar, HQ Co. 2d Bn., 507th PIR


The 507th PIR was attached to the 17th Abn. Div. on 27
August 1944. Stanton, Order of Battle, 264

Max Hastings can be quite controversial, and we may
not always agree with his various assessments; however, I often find
his conclusions to be thought provoking enough that he gives pause
to some of the pre-conceived notions we may have about some of
the greatest and most successful military campaigns. It is denigrating


particular Erwin Rommel—attempted to stress the
possibility of an invasion taking place elsewhere along
the French coastline other than the Pas de Calais.
Rommel insisted that in spite of the military
fortifications along the coast having been strengthened
from late 1943 through early 1944 that armored
divisions would in fact play a decisive role in repelling an
Allied attack, but Hitler and others thought
differently.13 The grave miscalculation on the part of
Germany’s political leaders was the positive externality
experienced by the Allies—that the Germans would be
wholly unprepared for an attack on Normandy.


he story of my father is not unique. As a soldier, he
likely did nothing more or less than what was
expected. He shunned the accolades after the war and
rarely spoke of events until a short time before he
passed away. There was no mention of ever having lost
a canteen cap. The only time he smiled, recalling the
past, was when he related how he made a parachute
from a small section of a discarded panel for one of the
carrier pigeons he jumped with during combat. Still, it is
difficult to not find some significance in the discovery of

that small aluminum cap that lay buried for so many
seasons after war’s end.
That story begins with the 28 year old Belgian who
found it while in Normandy in 2011 while making one of
his pilgrimages to that sacred land so many preserve in
honor of the men who fought and died there. Robin
began collecting WWII artifacts at a young age and in
2007 purchased a second-hand metal detector. He
states that his “biggest motivation” is to find
identifiable artifacts related to the military campaign in
Normandy, and whenever possible, to return those
items to veterans or their surviving family members.
Since his first encounter with an American veteran in
2004, Robin has made part of his life’s mission to
support veterans. His particular interest is with the
airborne divisions. His passion for finding artifacts
brought him into contact with James “Pee Wee” Martin
when he found a complete canteen belonging to a
fellow trooper of Martin’s from the 506th PIR of the
101st Airborne Division.15

to American soldiers who took to the beaches and skies beginning 6
June 1944 to assert that the Germans posted "second-rate" soldiers
along the western corridor. Hastings backs the position held by
many afterwards, that regardless of the "quality" soldier defending
the annexed coastline, they were formidable. He states that "in the
days following 6 June, the American forces in Normandy faced few
German opponents of the quality and determination of those who
were already moving into battle against the British Second Army."
Max Hastings, Overlord: D-Day & the Battle for Normandy (New
York: Simon and Schuster, 1985), 152.

In his classic work, Goerlitz articulates what historians
for the last seventy years have parroted concerning Germany's
defenses in the West. Perhaps they may not have been as fortified
as those along the Pas de Calais, and not as strong as some in the
East, but neither were they anything for the Allies to take lightly. ,
History of The German General Staff 1657-1945, trans. Brian
Battershaw (New York: Praeger, 1954), 459.

Stephen Badsey, comp., Atlas of World War II Battle
Plans: Before and After (New York: Helicon Publishing Ltd, 2000), 6869.

Goerlitz states that the “German command was taken
completely by surprise, and it was not until 5 a.m. that the first
counter-measures could be taken.” Goerlitz, German General Staff,

Photo: Robin Vertenten (L) James Martin (R) courtesy R. Vertenten©

Jim "Pee Wee" Martin was recently featured in a CNN
broadcast and interview when he jumped as part of the 70th
anniversary celebrations in Normandy. He served in the 506th PIR,
with Harvey Jewett whose canteen Robin found nearly five years
ago. Robin went to great lengths to contact Mr. Jewett, and finally
met him in the summer of 2013 after which he told Robin to keep
the canteen. To this day the two are good friends. Jim Bitterman and
Greg Botelho, "70 Years Later, D-day Vet Jim 'Pee Wee' Martin
Jumps Again," CNN, June 6, 2014, (accessed June 10, 2000).



obin’s efforts in finding artifacts have perhaps
been more successful than one would initially
suppose, however, the 506th trooper’s canteen, and my
father’s canteen cap have been the only items where a
tangible connection has been made. He is quick to
underscore that when possible, he offers the items to
family with no caveats and, in some cases, has made
donations of finds to establishments who proudly
display the artifacts as part of the local history. This
type of enthusiasm—the interest among European
youth fascinated by the stories they have heard from
their parents and grandparents—is foreign to my own
experiences. I was born nearly a quarter of a century
after the war’s end. My only connection is through the
study of history and those things I have belonging to my
father and vague recollections of his stories whose
details fade with my own youth. I have never visited
Normandy, and when in Germany, was far from where
the crucial battles took place. Neither was it anything I
discussed with relatives in Germany for obvious
reasons. The disbelief I sometimes have that anyone
outside the United States has such a keen interest in
WWII and American forces, is difficult to absorb—even
accept as “real” or genuine until I follow the activities of
young men like Robin on social networking sites and
forums. The attention they give to the past events is
humbling, and convicting. To realize that these
individuals—men and women—have such a tender
place in their heart for veterans is demanding of my


ormandy was not kind to Dad. It wasn’t kind to
anyone, really. On the return trip across the
channel—far away from the mazes of hedgerows,
burning German panzers, and fallen troopers—Dad
pitched his rifle overboard into the calming waters
where it was swallowed-up along with his month-long
memories of the ordeal.16 He and a couple of other men
from Fox Company took their three-day passes and
redefined the 72 hour period on their own terms. When

they returned to base, no one said a word. They were
ordered to barracks, and soon after, attended the
divisional memorial service on 6 August at De Montfort
Hall in Leicester. From that point forward, he fought
hard. He cared less about his feelings, and more about
getting the job done, and going home. Perhaps it wasn’t
a healthy attitude, but it helped him to survive. He did.
Again, Dad was like any other soldier—he performed his
duty, and like others who survived, he came home. To
have received a small remembrance of his time in
Normandy is a big reminder of the freedoms we so
often set aside as storybook memories and the
sacrifices made to secure them. Thank you, Robin and
those like you, and thank you to all veterans and those
who served in the armed forces of the United States
and the Civil Air Patrol as well.
Capt Efinger is the outgoing Deputy Chief of Staff for A5
(Plans, Programs and Requirements) at Southeast Region HQ.
He is a full-time teacher of Economics and Adjunct Professor
of History at Indian River State College in Ft. Pierce, Fl.

Editor’s Note
The views expressed in the Civil Air Patrol National
Historical Journal are those of the authors only and
do not reflect the official policy or position of the
Journal Staff or Editorial Board, the Civil Air Patrol,
its officers or members, nor the United States Air

Researchers Sought
The CAP National History Program is currently standing up a
project to build a database of every member lost in the line of
duty from World War II to the present (1945 – 2014). Lt Col
Barry Sullins, Rocky Mountain Region historian, is the lead on
this project. If interested in assisting, please contact Lt Col
Sullins at the following address:

Mr. William “Bill” Maginn (former patrolman with the
Nassau County Police Department, Long Island, NY, and patrolpartner of Gustav Efinger) conversation with author, June 2014. Bill
Maginn served with the 82d Abn. Div. during the Korean War.


Author’s Corner:
Richard Mulanax
Eyes on the Home Skies: Seventy-Five Years of the
Civil Air Patrol
Edited by Richard Mulanax, assisted by, Frank Blazich
and Kurt Efinger
As Civil Air Patrol (CAP) approaches its 75th Anniversary
in 2016, it is a time to reflect on the contributions of the
hundreds of thousands of members who have served in
the organization, from the dark days at the beginning of
World War II to the 21st Century.
This book is being written by historians with a link to
Civil Air Patrol. Some have been members for decades,
while others have volunteered to serve more recently.
They include the grand-daughter of Gill Rob Wilson,
who will write the chapter on the foundation of Civil Air
Patrol, the sons of World War II veterans, retired Air
Force officers, graduate students in History, and college
professors with Master’s and PhD degrees in History. All
have a common link – a bond with Civil Air Patrol and
the United States Air Force through CAP membership
and an interest in CAP.
The book will be organized chronologically, as follows:
Chapter 1 - The foundation of Civil Air Patrol by Gill
Robb Wilson, working with the Director of Civil Defense,
Fiorello LaGuardia, and others.
Chapter 2 - World War II service in support of Civil
Defense and the Army Air Forces, including important
and dangerous wartime missions such as the antisubmarine patrols.
Chapter 3 - Establishment of CAP as the official auxiliary
of the newly created United States Air Force and
definition of its peacetime mission in support of search
and rescue and similar support of the nation and the Air
Chapter 4 - The changing mission of Civil Air Patrol in
response to America’s role in the war in Vietnam and
continuing Cold War tensions.

Chapter 5 - The evolution of Civil Air Patrol toward
more internal management by the membership and the
expansion of flying operations through CAP expansion
of aircraft acquisition and management.
Chapter 6 - The changing mission of Civil Air Patrol as
the Cold War ends. This results in new and refined
missions such as Counter Drug Operations and
Hurricane relief.
Chapter 7 - Expansion of Civil Air Patrol involvement in
Homeland Security as a result of the 11 September 2001
terrorist attacks. CAP assisted the Air Force and the
Army immediately after these attacks and continues to
do support them on a continuing and permanent basis.
CAP also assisted in domestic emergencies such as the
Gulf Oil Spill.
Civil Air Patrol has a near 75 year legacy of supporting the
United States Air Force and its mission. This book will
demonstrate how this was done in the past and how CAP will
continue to provide essential services to Air Force and nation.
Lt Col Richard Mulanax, PhD:
Call for Submissions
The Civil Air Patrol National Historical Journal (NHJ) welcomes
articles, essays, and commentaries not exceeding 2,000 words
on any topic relating to the history of the Civil Air Patrol, or
military aviation history. CAP’s history extends to the present
day, and the Journal seeks accounts of on-going activities and
missions, as well as those of earlier years.
All historiographical works and essays must be submitted in
Chicago Manual of Style (CMS), or they will be rejected. We
encourage authors to submit digital photographs (minimal
resolution of 300 dots per inch) and illustrations for publication.
All content should be the work of the author or open source.
Adjustments to pixel saturation, color and size will be made
according to the editorials staff’s recommendations. Please note
that when submitted to the editor at the Civil Air Patrol National
Historical Journal, all works and related media are released from
copyright infringements if published.
Editorial changes are at the sole discretion of the editorial staff,
but will be discussed with the author prior to publication, and
require a signed release from the author.
The CAP NHJ editorial staff reserves the right to refuse,
any work submitted. All submissions must be sent as MS
Word attachments and mailed to the editor at