File #1430: "CAP NHJ Volume 2, Issue 4, OCT-DEC 2015.pdf"

CAP NHJ Volume 2, Issue 4, OCT-DEC 2015.pdf

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…a journal of
CAP history,
feature articles,
scholarly works,
and stories of

CAP National Historical Journal
Volume II, Issue IV: OCT-DEC 2015

The Civil Air Patrol National Historical Journal is published quarterly by professional volunteer staff. As academic historians by trade,
we recognize the demand for quality publications reflecting a variety of interests to Civil Air Patrol readers, and strive to present the
best in feature and thought provoking articles. We trust you will enjoy what the e-journal has to offer and will consider contributing
to the mission of our staff in providing a forum for the great traditions of our organization.

pursuits that encompass two-thirds of CAP’s missions to

Editor's Column

this day. This was a consequence of the United States

K.J. Efinger

not having fully developed air-doctrine beyond a near-

I have too often seen the tide of battle around the high
action of a few unhelped men to believe that the final
problem of the battlefield can ever be solved by the
S.L.A. Marshall, 1947

static and theoretical construct. Had we reached such a


revolutionary tendency to err on the side of enthusiasm.

s the role of the Civil Air Patrol has been variously
redefined by a host of insiders, outsiders, and the

like since its inception, the recent move from the Air
Education and Training Command (AETC), to part of the
USAF total force under Air Combat Command’s First Air
Force, has clearly established the mission-oriented goals.
This move validates the organization’s importance as a
force multiplier for the United States Air Force.

The stark reality is that CAP was an unwitting victim of
extraordinary circumstances from its beginning—chiefly
the problem of reconciling the combat-nature of the
coastal patrol missions, and the later educational

S.L.A. Marshall; quoted in Lt Col Barry D. Watts, USAF, The
Foundations of U.S. Air Doctrine: The Problem of Friction in War (Montgomery,
AL: Air University Press, 1984).

plateau of thinking commensurate with our European
and Asian counterparts, Brig Gen Billy Mitchell likely
would not have been as easily rejected in spite of his

In other words, Great Britain, Japan, and Germany in
particular had not only “experience” in air war, but
relatively fluid thinking on the establishment of airdoctrine and its incipient role in future wars. Some might
find this a disagreeable assertion, but in the early
morning hours of 7 Dec 1941, with the Imperial
Japanese assault on the U.S. Navy base at Pearl Harbor,
it should have suddenly become clear that U.S. air
doctrine needed a reassessment in terms of basic
defensive strategies, to advanced air combat interface
with enemy forces. Furthermore, the presumption that
naval power was sufficient would also have to be
addressed, as the base at Pearl Harbor was easily
targeted and destroyed via the use of air-power.


Staff & Acknowledgements

armed forces, was quickly extinguished by the Imperial

National Commander
Maj Gen Joseph R. Vazquez

Japanese air assault in late 1941. A top-down

Chief Historian
Col Frank A. Blazich Jr.

in Washington in the years following the First World War

National Historical Editor
Lt Col Richard B. Mulanax

our allies and their enemies. The early 1930’s Japanese

National Historical Journal Editor
Maj Kurt Efinger

the Spanish Civil War later in the same decade were


n all fairness, the Civil Air Patrol exemplifies this
incongruity of circumstances based on the fact that

reliance upon CAP for coastal patrol missions was an
integral part of territorial defense. In other words, when
civilian assets were mobilized to fulfill what was

reevaluation reveals that isolationist policies promoted

were contrary to the aggressive foreign policy goals of

invasion of Manchuria and the German involvement in

preparation for a larger manifestation of imperial
grandstanding that eventually brought the world into a
second global conflict.


mperial Japanese and German military thinkers were
far more advanced in their understanding that mobile

warfare and the mass integration of a variety of military

tantamount to combat roles, it ought to have registered

and even civilian assets were necessary in order to

somewhere in our minds that the ethical nature of this

realize the optimal effect of their forces. Though

application and relationship warranted serious review. In

American tradition has seen civilian volunteer units face

short, U.S. Army Air Corps doctrine remained in its

military action, it has never been a palatable alternative

infancy compared to that of contemporaneous political

to military units.

actors. The problem can either be identified as
“systemic,” or perhaps more appropriately interpreted

The utilization of civilian assets (Civil Air Patrol) to

as idealistic in terms of where the United States was in

provide for the border-defense of the United States was

the post-World War I environment.

brilliant, resourceful, ethically compromising, and
necessary, all at the same time. It was equally the result

The maintenance of U.S. overseas possessions won

of an ill-prepared and myopic view of the nature of

following the Spanish American War of 1898 was

future wars held by many U.S. politicians, conceived

facilitated by a Navy wrought from the inspiration of

from overly confident assumptions following the Paris

Alfred Thayer Mahan, and later supported by the

Peace Conference of 1919 that impeded U.S. military

seemingly likeminded champion of naval supremacy,

doctrine. The fortuitous nature of the creation of CAP,

Theodore Roosevelt. The flawed assumption that a navy

combined with the tenacity of its founders, as well as

would suffice in terms of coastal defense, as well as an

their own understanding of the potential air-defense

offensive tool without force-multipliers or auxiliary

deficit speaks for itself. Reliance on the Civil Air Patrol in

support, and serve as the sole backbone of a nation’s

the early days of WWII as a force-multiplier, and pseudo2

air-combat asset, stood as a testimony to the blurred

military planners are not deaf to the idea that volunteer

lines of relationships between civilians and the military.

units can augment greater military operations where
time, personnel, and money are key factors to success.


he unfortunate circumstances of late 1941 proved

It is also evidence that reliance on any single branch of

that U.S. war planners neither addressed the

the service, or specific technological asset is not an issue

more comprehensive role that air power would play in

of concern as it was with the advent of naval power or

future conflict, nor the fallacy that any one force would

even air power theory.

trump the necessity or dependence on another. The
sacrifice and devotion made by civilian pilots and their
aircrews will forever seal the gap between a nation’s
military and civilian volunteers. Were it not for the CAP


o long as the distinction between what is military
and what is not is made clear, the Civil Air Patrol has

a unique opportunity to work among, and beside the

volunteers and their commitment to civil-defense, the

armed forces of the United States in providing support

Armed Forces of the United States would not have been

and enhanced community relations.

able to concentrate on a military buildup that

Maj Efinger serves as the Historian for A-1 SER HQ, and is
a full-time teacher of Economics and Adjunct Professor of
History at Indian River State College in Ft. Pierce, FL.

compensated for decades of neglect and ultimately
developed ascendant technology leading to the war’s
end in late 1945.

The biggest mistake any political actor seeking to
maintain domestic security can make is to neglect his
civilian resources, failing to define specific roles for the
utilization of such mechanisms. The second mistake is to
subscribe to an ideology that technologies of any sort
will ultimately replace the human resources that created
them. The idea of technological determinism is one that
will be debated for years to come—certainly in a climate
where we see the development of newer and more
sophisticated air power resources. With each, the
countermanding technology appears almost on the
same day.

Letters to the Editor
The Editor at the CAP NHJ welcomes your
comments and feedback. Please submit letters
for review by emailing the editor at the address
All comments will be reviewed by the entire
editorial staff prior to publication. The CAP NHJ
Editorial Staff reserves the right to refuse
publication to any member based on the
content of the letter.
CAP members are encouraged to maintain a
professional and collegial attitude when
submitting correspondence.

The use of the Civil Air Patrol’s resources in WWII, as
well as the move to further embrace the organization as
a force multiplier today, has at least indicated that

Man Does Not Die. . .
Until He Is Forgotten

Sometimes there is a lack of interest in history as a result

Seth Hudson

however, history becomes so much more than data

of having to sort through statistics, lists and dates;

when it becomes personal. When one reads about


s members of Civil Air Patrol, we each hold
volunteer service as one of our core values. For

some, their volunteer service resulted in the loss of their
lives. Since World War II, scores of members have died

individuals and how their personal stories affected their
lives and the lives of others, people get interested. They
keep reading the book. They remember the stories, and
they pick the book up again.

during missions and other CAP activities. The memory of
this service and sacrifice should be remembered.

We have lost members from every region, almost 20
wings, and in every decade since our founding. The

Not long ago, Chief Historian, Colonel Frank Blazich,
asked me to take on the project of researching and
compiling a database of all members who died during a
CAP mission or at a CAP function since the end of World
War II. The task would include identifying the specific
number of CAP volunteers who died in service, with
hundreds of thousands of members, participating in tens
of thousands of missions, and spanning over 70 years. To
call the weight and magnitude of this project daunting
was an understatement. With the enormity of the
project already pressing, I was encouraged by the desire
to remember each of these members—even if we
remembered them by only their name and date they
were lost. It was with this desire—remembering their
memory and service to CAP—that I accepted the task.

members killed in service since World War II range from
the CAP National Commander to newly joined Senior
Members, and from non-commissioned officers to


he following are examples of their stories: On the
12th of September, 1948, eighteen year old Cadet

Walter Kyle Chapman, Jr. from the Houston area of
Texas Wing, was a passenger on a US Air Force flight
from Ellington Field in Houston to New Orleans. The
flight crashed while landing at New Orleans and killed all
aboard, including Cadet Chapman. A young girl was a
neighbor of the Chapman family, and she promised the
grieving Chapman parents that if she ever had a son, she
would name him “Kyle” in memory of their son. Almost
eighteen years later, she had a son and named him Kyle.

Over the last year, I have researched and identified more
than 50 individuals—fifty-plus CAP members who not
only died in volunteer service, but were fathers,
mothers, husbands, wives, sons, daughters, brothers and
sisters. They died doing what they loved: serving others.

Kyle Vernon is now a CAP Major and an active staff
officer of Lubbock Composite Squadron in Lubbock,
Texas. Cadet Chapman’s loss was heart-wrenching, and
his memory has continued through the namesake and
now the volunteer service of Major Vernon.


1959 was a devastating year for Colorado Wing. Lt Col

We are planning to remember these fallen members by

Paul D. Weller died during a search and rescue mission

keeping the completed list of lost CAP members on

while attempting to land near a downed US Air Force

display at National Headquarters. Additionally, we have

plane. Later in the year, a private aircraft went missing in

plans to include the list in the 75th Anniversary edition

the Rocky Mountains, and Colorado Wing went to work.

of Flying Minute Men.

Participating in the search, CAP Staff Sergeant Fred J.
LaVine piloted a search sortie alone and disappeared.

We are still finding more names. If you know of a CAP

The mission turned to searching for two aircraft.

member who died during a CAP mission or other CAP
function since World War II, please let us know—


he Civil Air Patrol had very different regulations in

whether it was in 1946 or 2015. If it was national news

1959, and teams of cadets were authorized to

or only the home units knew about it, help us ensure we

drive CAP vehicles by themselves. Two of these, Cadets

remember them all. If you know of any, please include

Norman W. Wilbarger and Darrell L. White, were driving

each lost member’s name, rank, home unit, date of

a CAP Jeep to interview some loggers who may have


seen SSgt LaVine’s aircraft. While en route, the Jeep

circumstances of the member’s death. Please send any

rolled over and killed both cadets. Many years passed

information you have to Maj Seth Hudson at

before SSgt LaVine’s remains and his aircraft were






This list is not only for our past but also our future. It is a
A cadet who was working at the Incident Command Post

way to remember those who did not return home after

the day SSgt LaVine failed to return chose to stay in CAP.

putting on a CAP uniform, and the many sacrifices that

Lt Col Charlotte Wright is now a 50 year member

come with volunteer service. It also serves as a reminder

currently assigned to National Capital Wing. She not only

of possible dangers and difficulties for which we need to

remembers the mission, but she uses the memory to

keep careful watch. We, as Civil Air Patrol, will use this

remember the potential for loss and the importance of

project to remember and be semper vigilans.

safety and other regulations in emergency services.

Maj Seth Hudson serves as the Southwest Region

These are some of the personal stories surrounding
tragic losses of Civil Air Patrol volunteers. These are
stories that help us remember those who were lost
during volunteer service. Making these losses personal
will help us to remember the lives of Cadet Chapman, Lt
Col Weller, SSgt LaVine, Cadets Wilbarger and White,
and dozens more.

Editor's Note: The Civil air Patrol National
Historical Journal continues to receive quality
submissions from across the CAP community,
and appreciates the continued support of its
members. Please adhere to the guidelines
specified in the journal with regard to format,
content, and review.

Frank Blazich Jr., PhD

based his designs on a blend of CAP’s past and present.
“The 75th Anniversary logo shows a nod to our
successful past and a look forward into our bright
future,” he said. “The anniversary logos show the yellow
WWII-era Stinson 10A used by CAP volunteers right off


s Civil Air Patrol prepares to celebrate its 75th
anniversary, it does so with a distinctive logo to

the Detroit production line to serve with Coastal Patrol.
The new Cessna 182 represents CAP's current standing
as the largest

celebrate its journey from 1941 to today.

Cessna fleet in
the world.

In July 2014, Col Frank Blazich, CAP chief historian, and






“The blue colors

government relations, initiated an effort to solicit

depict Civil Air

designs and slogans for the anniversary logo. Blazich

Patrol's vigilant

received over 25 potential logos and 100 slogan

service in the

submissions from the national membership. These


submissions were reviewed by the CAP 75th Anniversary
Committee, which chose the logo designed by thenSenior Member Glenn Somodi of the Ohio Wing as well
as the slogan from Lt Col William Houting of the New



represents both

Photo Credit: CAP Volunteer Now

the number of years CAP has been serving America and
a signifier of this year being our 75th Anniversary Year.”

York Wing.
Selecting the logo proved the most difficult task of all.
At Shipps’ recommendation, Somodi created two
designs, one round and one rectangular, incorporating


One design is for
coins and patches,



ideal for Web and
Photo Credit: CAP Volunteer Now


“With so many options, the issue became one of brevity
but also universal recognition,” Blazich said.


n the end, he opted for Houting’s simple but effective
suggestion. Using the CAP Latin motto and translating

it into the vernacular enables a greater connection with
the public while connecting past and present CAP
members with a common core.



insignia optimized

for printing purposes. Somodi, now a second lieutenant
in the Medina County Skyhawks Composite Squadron,







commemorative items using both designs, including
challenge coins, patches, a poster, T-shirts, hats and
coffee mugs. “I am very excited to learn that something

our squadron helped to create will appear on so many

Originally designed as one pamphlet, the cadet

materials for the 75th anniversary,” Somodi said. “It will

information grew to necessitate its own document. The

be great to look back in time and see a part of CAP

chronological arrangement of information is aligned with

history knowing our squadron had a hand in it.”

periods of American history and is consistent between
pamphlets to help readers understand CAP’s evolution
within a national context.

Call for Submissions
The Civil Air Patrol National Historical Journal (NHJ)
welcomes articles, essays, and commentaries not
exceeding 2,000 words on any topic relating to the history
of the Civil Air Patrol, or military/civilian aviation history.
CAP’s history extends to the present day, and the NHJ
seeks accounts of on-going activities and missions, as well
as those of earlier years.

A forthcoming series of museum graphic display panels
designed for the 75th Anniversary will accompany the
pamphlets. Lt Col Douglas Jessmer of the Ohio Wing
provided graphic support and designed the layout of the
pamphlets, while National History Program staff and
volunteers wrote and edited the text. “These pamphlets

All historiographical works and essays must be submitted
in Chicago Manual of Style (CMS), or they will be rejected
unless otherwise permitted. We encourage authors to
submit digital photographs (minimal resolution of 300 dots
per inch) and illustrations for publication. All content should
be the work of the author or open source. Adjustments to
pixel saturation, color and size will be made according to
the editorials staff’s recommendations. Please note that
when submitted to the editor at the Civil Air Patrol National
Historical Journal, all works and related media are
released from copyright infringements if published.

resulted from requests for information and a need to

Editorial changes are at the sole discretion of the editorial
staff, but will be discussed with the author prior to
publication, and require a signed release from the author.

Whether for general information requests, government

The CAP NHJ editorial staff reserves the right to
refuse any work submitted. All submissions must be
sent as MS Word attachments and mailed to the
editor at

Frank Blazich Jr., PhD


n preparation for Civil Air Patrol’s 75th Anniversary

provide members and the public with a concise history,”
said Col Frank Blazich Jr., CAP National Historian.
“Naturally, not every event or person could be included,
but the pamphlets should rekindle old memories and
inspire readers to learn more about CAP and the
members who continue to make history daily.”

relations, recruiting and retention or public relations, the
pamphlets are intended for a variety of purposes. Both







The above articles were written by Col Frank Blazich, Jr.,
PhD., and reprinted with permission. They originally
appeared in the Civil Air Patrol’s Volunteer Now
magazine. Col Blazich is the Chief Historian at NHQ, CAP.

Year, the CAP National History Program has released

two trifold pamphlets providing an overview of the
history of the organization and the cadet program.