File #1342: "Navigation and the Weather Workbook.pdf"

Navigation and the Weather Workbook.pdf

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NA
VIGA
TION
AND THE

WEA
THER

Major General Walter R. Agee, USAF
National Commander
Civil Air Patrol
Dr. Mervin K. Strickler Director of
Aviation Education Civil Air Patrol

PREFACE
The exercises and activities prescribed in this
workbook will help you attain the purposes of each
lesson. These purposes will be brought to your
attention by your instructor. No exercise is to be
attempted until your reading assignment has been
completed. Do not attempt the exercises until you have
made preparation after planning with the instructor and
paying heed to his presentation at the first lesson
session.
Do not hesitate to use every method at your command
in order to obtain essential information. Observe, read,
ask questions of your instructor and the resource
people that visit your classroom. You will note that
lessons are numbered in accordance with a natural
sequence and not with reference to a particular
workbook; for example, the first lesson of the
workbook: Aircraft in Flight is Lesson VII; that of the
workbook: Power for Flight is Lesson XIV. This
procedure is also used to identify the lesson plans of
the several booklets of the Instructor Guide series.
By means of a key your instructor will help you correct
Exercises I, 2, and 3 of each lesson. Since it has not
been possible to key the responses to Exercise 4, the
quality of these should be appraised during discussion
by students and instructor.

HAROLD E. MEHRENS, Editor
PRICE 15 CENTS PER COPY

NAVIGATION AND THE WEATHER
LessonXXlX
EXERCISE NO. 1
(You have 5 minutes to complete this exercise.)
1. Place a T in the blank space preceding a true statement;
place an F in the blank space preceding a false statement.
a ................... A pilot can chart a proper course without
regard to the prevailing weather conditions.
b ……………. A pilot may obtain in-flight weather information
from any radio communications station.
c ................ Weather forecasts are subject to continuing
change.
d ................Pilots do not have to know and understand
weather maps and report symbols.
e…………….. Weather sequence reports are more important
to pilots than weather maps and charts.
f. ……………..Aerial navigation is the science of flying from
one place to another as directly as circumstances will allow.
g ................... The shorter the flight, the more likely that
several navigation methods will be employed.
h ................. Celestial navigation is more likely to be used on
trans-ocean flights.
i ................ Aeronautical charts are used only by USAF pilots.
j ………………The U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey
prepares and publishes aeronautical charts.
EXERCISE NO. 2
(you have 10 minutes to complete this exercise.)
1. Fill in the blank spaces with the word, or words, that properly
complete the statement.
a. Two tasks which require the first attention of a pilot prior to
flight are ................................................ ........................................
and learning the kind of ..........................................................he
will likely encounter along his route.
b. As it is for ship captains at sea, the ..............................
is an important navigation instrument to aircraft pilots.
1

c. A statute mile is .........................................
feet, while a nautical mile is ................................................ feet or 1/60 of a
degree of the earth's equator.
d. Unless a pilot knows the .............................. direction and velocity he cannot
solve navigation problems involving (1) compass heading, (2) wind drift, (3)
ground-speed, (4) climb and descent time, and (5) fuel consumption.
e ..................................................... are interrupted periodically so a pilot in
flight can get current weather information.
f. Weather charts are published by
the ..................................................................
g. Reports of weather encountered by pilots in flight are
called…………………………………………… and are used by weather
forecasters.
h. Lindbergh used two types of navigation on his famous New York to Paris
flight. One was ……………………………………………
and the other was ....................................
i. ……………………………………….. may have to be changed from time to
time during flight to compensate for wind and keep the aircraft on course.
j. Surface weather maps are prepared ……………………………
times daily.

EXERCISE NO. 3 (You have 5
minutes to complete this exercise.)
1. Draw a circle around the number preceding the phrase which
is best to make the statement a correct expression.
a. Before beginning a flight operation a civilian pilot should get
weather information from:
1. Flight Information Service
2. Meteorological Forecasting Service.
3. The United States Weather Bureau.
4. Newspapers and TV.
b. Sectional aeronautical charts are in a scale of:
1. 16 miles to an inch.
2. 32 miles to an inch.
3. 80 miles to an inch.
4. 8 miles to an inch.
c. The number of stations providing weather information in the
United States today is approximately:
1. 1250.
2 125.
3.12.
4. 25.

d. To keep an aircraft on course by reference to visible landmarks
known to mark the desired flight path is a type of navigation known as:
1. Dead reckoning
2. Celestial.
3. Visual flight rules (VFR).
4. Pilotage.
e. The type of navigation which requires a pilot to calculate a compass
heading before a flight and to keep a record of the direction, distance,
and time of flight between positions along the course is called:
1. Dead reckoning
2. Pilotage.
3. Celestial navigation.
4. Compass navigation.

EXERCISE NO. 4
(You have 15 minutes to complete this exercise.)
List as many signs and symbols shown on an aeronautical chart
as possible, and give a location for each type you can identify.

LessonXXX
EXERCISE NO. 1 (You have 5 minutes to complete
this exercise.)

1. Place a T in the blank space preceding a true statement;
place an F in the blank space preceding a false statement.
a .................. Imaginary lines perpendicular to the equator and
intersecting the poles are called meridians of longitude.
b…………….The prime meridian passes through the equator
and Greenwich, Connecticut.
¢ ……………. Time belts are established for each 15 degrees of
latitude.
d ................... The great problem in map and chart making is to
represent the spherical surface of the earth on a flat map so that
direction and distance can be measured accurately.
e ................... The most noticeable characteristics of the
Mercator map are vertical meridians and horizontal parallels.

f ………........ A great circle is not the shortest distance
between two points.
g ................... The Lambert map is used for aeronautical
charts.
h. …………….The bearing (direction) from one place to
another is always measured clockwise from north.
i. ……. The magnetic north pole is the same place as the
geographic north pole.
j ................... An altimeter's operation is based on the fact
that as altitude increases, air pressure decreases.

EXERCISE NO. 2
(You have 10 minutes to complete this exercise.)
1. Fill in the blank spaces with the word, or words, that properly
complete the statement.
a. Imaginary lines drawn around the earth parallel to the equator
are called parallels of ................................................................
b. When it is 1200 hours Eastern Standard Time, it
is ....................................
hours Pacific Standard Time.
c. Map and chart making is called
…………………………………………….
d. When flying due east, you would
bear .......................................
degrees.
e. To determine .................................. a line is drawn from
departure paint to destination, and the angle formed by that line
and the meridian midway between those points is measured.
f. On an aeronautical chart, the degree and direction of
magnetic variation in an area are shown by
……………………………. lines.
g. To determine ground speed, a pilot will refer to
the……………………………..
h. Excessive swing of a compass card and needle is dampened
by a light ...................................... contained in the compass
case.
i. The altimeter lags a few ………………………………..
in recording changes in elevation.
j. Elevations above sea level on aeronautical charts are shown
by color shades and .............................................
lines.
4

EXERCISE NO. 3
(you have 5 minutes to complete this exercise.)
i. Draw a circle around the number preceding the phrase which is
best to make the statement a correct expression.

a. The angular distance from the Greenwich meridian around the world and back is:
1. 90 degrees.
2. 180 degrees.
3. 270 degrees.
4. 360 degrees.
b. The Mercator map was devised in the year:
1. 1269.
2. 1912.
3. 1569.
4. 1857.
c. The reciprocal of a heading of 72 degrees is:
1. 272 degrees.
2. 252 degrees.
3. 162 degrees.
4. 12 degrees.

d. The following are essential basic instruments for navigation except the:
1. Altimeter.
2. Air speed indicator.
3. Clock.
4. Ground speed indicator.
e. A great circle is represented by a continuous straight line on a:
1. Mercator projection.
2. Rhumb line.
3. Lambert Conformal Conic projection map.
4. Long distance flight only.

EXERCISE NO. 4
(You have 15 minutes to complete this exercise.)
1. Using an aeronautical chart, locate and write the longitude and latitude of three large cities and the highest and lowest elevation on the chart.
2. Plot a course of at least 200 nautical miles on your chart. Mark your
i n t e n d e d t r a c k a s A B . N o w, u s i n g a p r o t r a c t o r, c o m p u t e y o u r ( 1 ) t r u e
course, (2) true heading, (3) magnetic heading, and (4) compass heading.
With a no-wind condition and a true air speed of 91 knots, what would
your ground speed be?

LessonXXXI
EXERCISE NO. 1 (You have 5
minutes to complete this exercise.)
1. Place a T in the blank space preceding a true statement; place an
F in the blank space preceding a false statement.
a ...................
A pilot will always use pilotage if he has a radio-equipped aircraft.
b ................... Pre-flight planning is important only because it is
required by CAA, Air Force and airline regulations.
c ................... The before take-off procedures for pilotage and dead
reckoning are.the same up to a point.
d ...................
In pilotage, the first check point should be a prominent landmark near
the airport.
e ………………. The first before take-off step in pilotage is drawing a
line on the chart or map from the departure point to the destination.
f ..................
A good end bracket would be a river running perpendicular to your
course and near your destination.
g ……………A pilot must compute ground speed in pre-flight
planning.
h …………….. A pilot estimates drift by observing the smoke angle
from a nearby smokestack.
i …………….
A pilot can use pilotage on a night flight.
j…………………. After a pilot sights his second check point and
determines his ground speed, he can put his maps away, because he
is sure to remain on course.
EXERCISE NO. 2
(You have I0 minutes to complete this exercise.)
I. Fill in the blank spaces with the word, or words, that properly
complete the statement.
a. A .................................. is a terrain feature—such as a
railway, river, or prominent highway which parallels a course or
a portion of a course.
b.....................................................
is the direction toward the destination, as measured on the
chart.
6

c....................................................
is the direction in which the nose of the airplane points during flight.
d …………………………
is the actual path made over the ground in flight. (If proper correction
has been made for the wind, ………………………………………….
and course will be identical.)
e………………………………………………. is the angle between heading
and track.
f ................................................. is correction applied to the course in
order to establish a heading which will make track coincide with course.
g .......................................................
is the rate of the plane's progress through the air.
h ................................................. is the rate of the plane's progress over
the ground.
t
i. If an aircraft has no radio equipment, it is restricted to ........................
j. A convenient distance of "mark off" segments of the true course line
is ................................................
miles.

EXERCISE NO. 3
(You have 5 minutes to complete this exercise.)
1. Draw a circle around the number preceding the phrase which is best to
make the statement a correct expression.
a. As soon as an aircraft leaves the airport and reaches the first check point, it
should be turned to the proper:
1. Compass course.
2. Magnetic course.
3. Mid-meridian course.
4. True course.
b. To correct for wind drift, point the nose of the aircraft:
1. Away from the wind.
3. Up.
2. Into the wind.
4. Down.
c. After noting the elapsed time between your first and second check points
you can determine:
1. Air speed.
3. Bracket speed.
2. Ground speed.
4. Pilotage speed.
d. If the compass correction card reads for E, steer 88°, and for 120°, steer
118°, your compass heading an magnetic course of 105° would be:
1. 107°.
3. 103°.
2. 86°
4. 116°.
7

e. If you were on a compass heading of 270° and noticed the aircraft drifting to the left of course, your
corrected compass heading might be:
1. 272°.
3. 90°.
2. 268°.
4. 270°.

EXERCISE NO. 4
(You have 15 minutes to complete this exercise.) Using an
aeronautical chart, pre-plan a short flight following steps 1-6 on
pages 20-21 of Navigation and the Weather.

LessonXXXll
EXERCISE NO. 1 (You have 5 minutes to
complete this exercise.)

1. Place a T in the blank space preceding a true statement; place an F
in the blank space preceding a false statement
a ……………. In solving a dead reckoning problem, we begin by using
the same "before take-off" procedure as in pilotage.
b ................. An additional step in solving a dead reckoning problem is
that of converting magnetic course to magnetic heading by taking into
account the effect of wind speed and direction.
c ………………… Problems of fuel consumption have no relationship
to dead reckoning problems.
d ………………. If the air speed, true speed, and wind speed and
direction of an airplane are known, we can compute wind correction
angle and ground speed.
e ................. It is necessary to use a "computer" to solve most dead
reckoning problems.
f ................... We can solve most types of dead reckoning problems by
means of the wind triangle method
g................ We cannot extend a wind triangle problem graphically in
order to compute a round trip.
h..................
A vector has both force (or velocity) and direction.
i ................. Pilots can solve some types of dead reckoning as a
navigational procedure.

EXERCISE NO. 2
(You have 10 minutes to complete this exercise.)
1. Fill in the blank spaces with the word, or words, that properly complete
the statement.
a. A ..........................................
is a course corrected for wind effect.
b. In solving a dead reckoning problem prior to take-off, we get our wind
speed and direction from one of the ...................……………………
c. The wind triangle problem is a …………………………………………..
problem.
d. We can solve several types of dead reckoning problems by the wind
……………………………………… method.
e. Because of magnetic variation, we must compute a magnetic heading
(MH). We then determine
……………………………………………………………….
by applying compass deviation.
f. We divide miles per hour into ………………………………………
and multiply by rate of fuel consumption to determine required fuel.
g. It takes …………………………………………
to gain skill and exactness in solving dead reckoning problems.
h. A combination of a scale and a protractor is called a
………………………………………………………………………………………
i. When you have computed your
………………………………………………………………………………………
……… you can estimate your arrival time.
j. There are many dead reckoning problems that can be solved by
the ...................................................
diagram.

EXERCISE NO. 3
(You have 5 minutes to complete this exercise.)
1. Draw a circle around the number preceding the phrase which is best to
make the statement a correct expression.
a. We can compute CH, GS, time of arrival, and fuel required when, in
addition to the compass course and air speed of our aircraft, we also know:
1. The magnetic course.
2. The wind speed and direction.
3. The distance between our points of departure and destination.
4. The true course.
b. The first line to be drawn when solving a dead reckoning problem
graphically is the:
1. East-west line.
3. North-south
line.
2. True course line.
4. Wind vector.
9

c. If we have TC of 60°, a wind correction angle of 5°, and wind
from the left, we would in determining TH:
1. Add 5° to 60°.
2 Multiply 60° by 5°.
3. Divide 5° into 60°.
4. Subtract 5° from 60°.
d. If our GS is 90 mph, our rate of fuel consumption 5 gallons per
hour, and the distance 360 miles, the required fuel for the flight is:
1. 20 gallons.
2. 25 gallons.
3. 72 gallons
4. 18 gallons
e. If you had prepared a pilotage flight and decided before takeoff to change to a dead reckoning flight, you would take into
account wind speed and direction and then convert:
1. Variation to deviation.
2. Compass course to compass deviation.
3. Magnetic course to magnetic heading.
4. True course to compass course.
EXERCISE NO. 4
(You have 15 minutes to complete this exercise.)
1. Using the outline and directions for a dead reckoning problem from
pages 25 and 26 of Navigation and the Weather, solve the following:
TC 75°, AS 80mph, wind 10 mph from 15°. Find TH and GS.
2. Use the information and answers from problem (1) and make a
pilot's planning chart following the examples from page 27 of
Navigation and the Weather. VAR I°E, D 3°E. Complete through GS
only.

Lesson XXXIII
EXERCISE NO. 1
(You have 5 minutes to complete this exercise'.)
1. Place a T in the blank space preceding a true statement;
place an F in the blank space preceding a false statement
a ...................
Even though an aircraft is well equipped with electronic
navigation aids, successful navigation still depends on the pilot's
skill in using them.
b ................... If a pilot get off the "beam," he cannot easily get
back on.
10

c ................... By flying the "beam," the pilot can fly directly to or
from a radio range station.
d. .................. When a radio compass needle points toward zero,
it is receiving strong radio signals
e………………. By means of a radio direction finder with which to
find the bearings at least two stations, a pilot can plot his position.
f …………........
The celestial coordinates are the parallels of declination /and the
meridians of the sidereal hour angle
g ……………. A solar day is the time it takes a star to leave its
substellar point and then return to that point
h ................... The solar day is longer than the sidereal day
because of the movement of the earth in its orbit.
i ................... In celestial navigation, we do not use a prime
meridian.
j…………………..The vernal equinox is that point at which the
plane of the ecliptic crosses the celestial equator.

EXERCISE NO. 2
(You have 10 minutes to complete this exercise.)
1. Fill in the blank spaces with the word, or words, that properly
complete the statement.
a. By controlling the direction of radio waves on a four-course radio
range, we can broadcast an .............. in one direction and a
………………….
in the other.
b. When a pilot is on the "beam," flying a radio range, he will hear a
steady …………………….
in his earphones.
c. A radio compass is sometimes called a ………………………
device.
d. When using a radio direction finder, a pilot will rotate the loop until
he gets a ………………………
e. An LF/MF radio range will normally have ………………….
courses
f. In celestial navigation, we use the …………………………… as
reference points.
g. Each star has at any given time some point on the earth's surface
which is directly beneath it. This point is called its ..............................
point.
h. A navigator must assume that each star has a definite position on
the surface of the celestial sphere and that this sphere encloses the
………………………………………..
sphere.
11

i. The sidereal hour angle is measured only ………………………………………
from the prime celestial meridian.
j. To measure the altitude of a star, the aerial navigator normally uses an
……………………….

EXERCISE NO. 3
(You have 5 minutes to complete this exercise.)
1. Draw a circle around the number preceding the phrase which is best to make
the statement a correct expression.
a. One type of navigation that is virtually independent of the weather is:
1. Celestial.
3. Dead reckoning.
2. Pilotage.
4. Radio.
b. A publication used to provide data for celestial navigation problems is “HO
249" published by the U. S. Hydrographic Office. Another publication used for
the same purpose is:
1. "World Almanac."
3. "American Air Almanac."
2. "Farmers Almanac."
4. "Star Almanac."
c. Two important celestial navigation instruments used by aerial navigators are:
1. Sextant and chronometer.
3. Ecliptic and chronometer
2. Octant and chronometer.
4. Quadrant and chronometer
d. Using their substellar point as centers, concentric circles may be drawn to
plot a fix from the altitudes of two stars. These circles are called:
1. Circles of parallels.
3. Substellar circles.
2. Great circles.
4. Circles of position.
e. A chronometer is a:
1. A precision instrument used to measure the stars.
2. A celestial navigation aid published by the U. S. Hydrographic Office.
3. Precise and accurate timepiece.
4. Precise and accurate electronic device.

LessonXXXIV
EXERCISE NO. 1
(You have 5 minutes to complete this exercise.)
1. Place a T in the blank space preceding a true statement; place an F
in the blank space preceding a false statement.
a …………….. The most simple problems of air navigation illustrate the
importance of weather to a pilot, because such problems include wind
direction velocity effects.
b ………………
The sun is the earth's great source of energy and transfers its heat by
means of radiant waves.
c ………….. All of the suns radiation toward the earth reaches its
destination.
d. .................. Air density and temperature decreases as altitude above
sea level increases.
e ........………. Insolation at the equator is less, because there the
earth's angle of incidence is less.
f…………………. The wind moves from low to high pressure areas.
g……………….. Gravity, friction, mountains, and large bodies of water
all affect the general circulation of air.
h. ………………….. The ratio of the amount of water vapor which a
sample of air holds to the amount it can hold when saturated is called
relative humidity.
i .................. When the air is 100% saturated, precipitation can occur
without cloud formations.
j ………...... Condensation may result when ascending air is affected
by the adiabatic process.

EXERCISE NO. 2
(You have 10 minutes to complete this exercise.)

EXERCISE NO. 4
(You have 15 minutes to complete this exercise)
1. Sketch your impression of a four-course radio range,
showing the N and A quadrants and the "beam."
2. List oil the various kinds of radios and radio aids you
can think of that might help a pilot navigate.
3. Write your definition of celestial navigation.
12

1. Fill in the blank spaces with the word, or words, that properly complete
the statement.
a. The atmosphere is estimated to be …………………………… miles thick.
b. The weight of the upper air compresses the air at sea level and thereby
increases its ……………………………………. and ...............................
c. The rate at which the earth's surface is heated is called
……………………………..

d. When water from the earth's surface evaporates ..
……………………. is absorbed.
e. Much of the sun's radiation is absorbed or reflected by the
………………………………….
f. If the earth did not rotate, air from the equatorial zone would rise
rapidly, the upper air would flow toward the ……………………..,
and the surface air would move toward the
……………………………………
g. Since the earth rotates, the nature of the air currents is
modified by a factor called …………………………….. force.
h. Lines of equal pressure on a weather map are called
……………………….
i. The term 'dry air' characterizes air that contains no water vapor,
while ….……………………………………. air contains water vapor.
j. Jet streams flow at approximate speeds of
…………………...........................
to …………………………………. mph.

EXERCISE NO. 3 (You hove 5 minutes to complete
this exercise.)
1. Draw a circle around the number preceding the phrase which is best to make the
statement a correct expression.
a. The layer of atmosphere where most of the weather changes take place is called the:
1. Tropopause.
3. Ionosphere.
2. Stratosphere.
4. Troposphere.
b. Vertical movements of air are called:
1. Convection currents.
3. Under currents.
2. Concave currents.
4. Winds.
c. Jet streams flow at an approximate altitude of:
1. 5,000 feet.
3. 60,000 feet.
2. 30,000 feet.
4. 90,000 feet.
d. The process of expansion or compression of a parcel of air when no heat is added, yet a temperature
change takes place, is called:
1. Isothermal.
3. Adiabatic.
2. Insolation.
4. Coriolis.

e. Jet streams normally flow from:
1. West to east.
2. East to west.

3. South to north.
4. North to south.

EXERCISE NO. 4
(You have 15 minutes to complete this exercise.)
1. List and describe the different states of the weather; i.e., rain,
etc.
2. State in your own words why you think a pilot should have a
thorough knowledge and understanding of the weather.

LessonXXXV
EXERCISE NO. I (You have 5 minutes
to complete this exercise.)

1. Place a T in the blank space preceding a true statement;
place an F in the blank space preceding a false statement.
a ……………… General weather changes are the result of the
meeting of air masses having different characteristics.
b ......……….. The movement of a front occurs when one air
mass attempts to displace another.
c ……………. A cold front is characterized by haze, fog, low
ceiling, and poor visibility.
d ................... A cold front may move from 500 to 700 miles in
a day.
e ……………. An occluded front is formed by vertical waves
which cause a high pressure area to form.
f ................. The weather man writes descriptions of the
weather on his map in longhand.
g …………….. In this day of modern aviation, thunderstorms
are no longer considered as hazards to aircraft in flight.
h ......………. Turbulence, high winds, heavy rains, lightning,
and hail are characteristics of thunderstorms.
i ……………… The mature stage of a thunderstorm is
characterized by updrafts, downdrafts, and severe turbulence.
j. .................. If pilots are aware of and give consideration to
flight hazards before "take-off", their chances of completing a
safe flight are increased.
15

EXERCISE NO. 2 (You have 10 minutes to complete
this exercise.)

1. Fill in the blank spaces with the word, or words, that properly
complete the statement.
a. The characteristics of an air mass are determined by the
…………………… of the air mass.
b. The boundaries between air masses of different characteristics
are called …………………………………….
c. As an occluded front approaches, one first observes
………………………..
front characteristics.
d………………………. clouds appear to be piled one on top of
another, while …………………………………… clouds are spread
out in layers.
e. Wisps of high cirrus clouds observed 400 miles ahead of a front
identifies it as an approaching ……………………………. front.
f. Hundreds of weather stations each hour transmit reports
by…………………………………
g. In the dissipating stage of a thunderstorm, the rain decreases and there are
………………………………..
drafts.
h. Thunderstorms are usually ……………………………………………………….
and each is in a different stage of development at any given time.
i. Before ice can form on an aircraft, there must be ………………………..
moisture in the air.
j. ………………………..…. visibility is usually the result of fog, haze, smoke,
blowing dust, and the like.

EXERCISE NO. 3
(You have 5 minutes to complete this exercise.)
1. Draw a circle around the number preceding the phrase which is best to
make the statement a correct expression.
a. A continental air mass is:
1. Humid.
3. Cold.
2. Dry.
4. Hot.
b. A cold front will normally have a squall line ranging in length from:
1. 500-700 miles.
3. 150-300 miles.
2. 250-500 miles.
4. 50-100 miles.
16

c. Cumulo-nimbus clouds may be described as appearing piled one on top of another and also:
1. Raining.
3. Very high.
2. Curly.
4. Broken.
d. There are three stages in the life of a thunderstorm. One of the following is not one of the three stages.
It is:
1. Cumulus.
3. Mature.
2. Stratus.
4. Dissipating.
e. Icing generally occurs when the temperature is between: 32°F and 20°F.
3. 32°F and 52°F.
2. 20°F and 0°F.
4. 10°F and 5°F.

EXERCISE NO. 4
(You have 15 minutes to complete this exercise.)
1. Write down your estimate of the following weather conditions
which now prevail or which existed prior to nightfall:
a. Sky cover—in tenths.
b. Cloud ceiling--in thousands of feet.
c. Visibility--in miles.
d. State of the weather--smoke, fog, etc.
e. Temperature--degrees Fahrenheit
f. Wind direction--compass direction.
g. Wind velocity--miles per hour.
h. Type precipitation -- if any.
2. Use the weather information you listed in 1 above, and from it
prepare a station weather report. Refer to diagram at the top of
page 57 in your pamphlet.
3. At this point, if you have any questions about the material
covered in the previous seven classes, you should bring these
to the attention of the instructor. This period should be devoted
to discussing all questions which you and other students desire
to have answered.