File #1336: "Aircraft in Flight Workbook.pdf"

Aircraft in Flight Workbook.pdf

PDF Text

Text

AIRCRAFT
IN
FLIGHT

d. A fixed pitch propeller is not as efficient as one on which
the ....
pitch is ___________________.
e. As altitude increases, air becomes less
_______________________.
f. One of the two primary airfoils in an airplane is the wing. The
other is the ____________________.
g. The safest gas for lifting lighter-than-air craft is helium
because it will not _________________________.
h. Heavier-than-air craft include _______________________,
________________________ and ______________________.
i. Lighter-than-air craft include __________________,
___________________ and
_____________________________.
j. Gliders are also known as _______________________.

e. Airplanes, helicopters and gliders all have a principal structure
called:
1. Rotors.
2. An envelope.
3. A fuselage.
4. Nose wheels.
EXERCISE NO. 4
(You have 15 minutes to complete this exercise.)
1. Draw and label a figure representing a balloon, a blimp and a
dirigible.
2. Draw, label and then list the major components of a glider,
airplane and helicopter.
3. Write a brief essay of at least fifty words describing what, in
your opinion, are the basic differences between lighter-than-air
and heavier-than-air craft.

LessonVIII
EXERCISE NO. 3
(You have 5 minutes to complete this exercise.) 1. Draw a circle
around the number preceding the phrase which is best to make
the statement a correct expression.
a. Propellers and wings are:
1. Usually made of wood.
2. The primary airfoils in an airplane.
3. Set at the same pitch.
4. Subjected to the same stresses.
b. Helium is more satisfactory in lighter-than-air craft because:
1. It is cheaper.
2. It has greater lifting power.
3. lt is non-burnable.
4. It will not leak out.
c. Lighter-than-air craft include:
1. Balloons, dirigibles and gliders.
2. Airplanes, helicopters and gliders
3. Gliders, helicopters and balloons.
4. Blimps, balloons and dirigibles.
d. The first aircraft to carry man aloft was:
1. A blimp.
2. A glider.
3. A balloon.
4. A helicopter.

EXERCISE NO. 1
(You have 5 minutes to complete this exercise.)
1. Place a T in the blank space which precedes a true
statement; place an F in the blank space which precedes a false
statement.
a. …………………. An airplane gets all of its lift from the engine
power transmitted through the propeller.
b. …………… The faster an airfoil travels through the air the
greater is the lift on the wings.
c. …………….. Newton's law of action and reaction does not
apply in a vacuum.
d. ......... Part of the lift force applied to a wing in flight is caused
by the downward deflection of air on the bottom of the wing.
e. ............. The pressure of air is constant regardless of altitude
above sea level.
f. ................... The most effective airfoil is one where the top and
bottom sides have the same curvature.
g. .................. Air is fluid.
h. ................The movement of an airfoil through the air creates a
relative wind.
i .................. The direction of the relative wind is never parallel to
the line of flight.
i ...................Although it exerts pressure, air has no weight.
3

EXERCISE NO. 2
(You have 10 minutes to complete this exercise)
1. Fill in blank spaces with the word, or words, that properly
complete the statement.
a. For every action there must be an equal and
opposite ..............................
....................
b. As the velocity of air increases, its pressure ………………….
c. As the velocity of air decreases, its pressure…………………..
d. Air has three characteristics. It is .....
………………. It exerts ……………….
and it has ………………
e. When we speak of mass per unit volume, we are speaking
of ......................
f. The recoil of a gun is an example of a ………………….
g. A tube, wide at each end but narrow at the throat between the
openings, is a ..................................................................
h. Air moves across the top and under the bottom of a wing. The
air moving across the top moves ........................... i. At sea level
air exerts a pressure of about …………………………….
j. The movement of the relative wind over the top of the wing
contributes to the force called ....................................
EXERCISE NO. 3
(You have 5 minutes to complete this exercise.)
1. Draw a circle around the number preceding the phrase which
is best to make the statement a correct expression.
a. Density is defined as:
1. Thickness.
2. Mass times weight.
3. Mass per unit volume.
4. Compressibility.
b. Air is:
1. A gas.
2. A fluid.
3. A solid.
4. Is mode up of electrons and neutrons.

c. The direction of the relative wind is always:
1. Perpendicular to the line of flight.
2. At right angles to the angle of incidence.
3. Opposite to lift
Parallel to the line of
flight.
d. When altitude is increased above sea level:
1. Pressure increases and weight decreases.
2. Weight increases and pressure decreases.
3. Pressure and weight decrease.
4. Pressure and weight remain constant.
e.Forces acting on air can cause it to be:
1. Compressed or expanded.
2. Heated and therefore compressed.
3. Cooled and therefore expanded.
4. Transferred into a liquid form.

EXERCISE NO. 4
(You have 15 minutes to complete this exercise.)
1. Draw a cross section of an airfoil.
2. Show the effect of relative wind on an airfoil. (Use the
illustration in 1 above.)
3. State in your own words Newton's law of action and
reaction and Bernoulli's principle of pressure-differential.
Cite an example of both principles in practice.

LessonIX
EXERCISE NO. 1
(You have 5 minutes to complete this exercise.)
1. Place a T in the blank space which precedes a true
statement; place an F in the blank space which precedes a false
statement.
a. An airplane will balance at the center of pressure.
b. Pilots have some control over induced drag.
c. Drag is the result of the force of weight.
d. Take-off runs are normally shorter at sea level than at 10,000
feet.
5

e………….The chord line runs laterally from wing tip to wing
tip.
f.............. Aspect ratio is the quotient of span divided by
average chord.
g ...................Parasite drag and induced drag are caused
by skin friction.
h…………….. Form drag is least on teardrop shaped
objects.
i………………. Thrust and drag are equal when an airplane
is in straight and level flight.
j………….Airspeed and groundspeed are the same
provided temperature is constant at 59 degrees Fahrenheit.
EXERCISE NO. 2
(You have 10 minutes to complete this exercise.)
1. Fill in the blank spaces with the word, or words, that properly
complete the statement.
a. The four forces acting on an airplane in flight are
………………., ……………………, ………………… and
……………….
b. Lift acts in opposition
to ...................................................................
c ................................................................... acts in opposition
to drag.
Angle of attack is the angle formed by the chord line and
the ........................................................................................ ......
...........................
e. Water vapor weighs
about......................................................................
as much as an equal volume of dry air.
f. A wing having--a span,of 40 feet and a chord of 5 feet has an
aspect ratio of .........................................
g. Another name for form drag is
……………………………….drag.
h. Lift is related to wing dimensions, to ………………………to
angle of ………………….and to air ………………………..
i. Vortices result from the spilling of air into the
…………………..................
pressure area .....
…………………….. the wings.
j. Density of air is ..................................................................
at sea level than at higher altitudes.

EXERCISE NO. 3
(You have 5 minutes to complete this exercise.)
1. Draw a circle around the number preceding the phrase which
is best to make the statement a correct expression.
a. Two of the four forces acting on an airplane in flight which act
in opposition are:
1. Lift and thrust.
2. Drag and weight.
3. Thrust and drag.
4. Gravity and drag.
b. Angle of incidence is:
1. Parallel to the relative wind.
2. Never fixed.
3. The
between the chord line at the wing root and the angle
longitudinal axis of the airplane.
4. The angle between the chord line at the wing root and the
relative wind.
c. Induced drag:
1. Has no relation to the angle of attack.
2. Has an indirect relation to the angle of attack.
3. Has a direct relation to the angle of attack.
4.Has a direct relation to aspect ratio.
d. Induced drag is:
1. Avoidable to a degree.
2. The unavoidable result of lift.
3. Always greater than form drag.
4. Reduced as parasite drag is increased.
e. One of the four forces over which pilots and designers have
no control is:
1. Thrust.
2. Drag.
3. Lift.
4. Weight.
EXERCISE NO. 4
(You have 15 minutes to complete this exercise.)
1. Make a cross section drawing of an airfoil showing relative
wind, angle of attack and angle of incidence.
2. Draw a streamlined body and show its effect on the relative
wind.
3. Define three types of drag and cite an example of how each
occurs.
7

LessonX
EXERCISE NO. 1
(You have 5 minutes to complete this exercise.) 1. Place a T in
the blank space which precedes a true statement; place an F in
the blank space which precedes a false statement.
a ..................
There are three axes around which an airplane moves.
b ................
Drag is the term applied to movement around the lateral axis.
c .................
Load limit is the ratio of a load to the design weight of an airplane.
d. ............. To turn left a pilot moves the control stick to the right.
e ……….. Roll is movement about the longitudinal axis.
f ………….
Stalls occur only at minimum speed.
g…………. Dihedral and sweepback mean one and the same thing.
h ................... Thrust, drag, tension, shear and bending are the five
stresses imposed on an airplane in flight.
i……………..Normally, the maximum angle of attack is 20 degrees.
Any change in attitude of an airplane involves movement about at
least one axis.

EXERCISE NO. 2
(You have 10 minutes to complete this exercise.) 1. Fill in the blank
spaces with the ward, or words, that properly complete the
statement.
a. The pilot controls movement about the three axes by means of
…………………., ………………… and .....................
b. Yaw is movement about the vertical
axis, .........................................
is movement about the lateral axis and ……………………………..
is movement about the .........................
……………………. axis
c. ……………………………………….and ........................................
provide stability about the vertical and longitudinal axes.
d. Tension forces tend to …................................ a
structure…………………………
e. There is a direct, relation between load and design weight This
relation is called ....................................... ……………………………

f. Movement of the throttle fore or aft will cause an airplane
to .............................
or ............................
g. The acceleration produced by gravity is .............................................
feet per second per second.
h. A 150-lb. pilot under a 2 (3 force load weighs ......................................
pounds.
j. Structural failure can result from high speed flight
through .........................................
air.
j. Maneuvering speed is .......................................................
percent greater than normal stalling speed.
EXERCISE NO. 3
(You have 5 minutes to complete this exercise.) 1. Draw a circle around
the number preceding the phrase which is best to make the statement a
correct expression:
a. Stalls and spins are:
1. Dangerous.
2. Not permitted.
3. Normal reaction to control movement by the pilot.
4. Always to be avoided.
b. Dihedral provides:
1. Stability about the vertical axis.
2. Stability about the longitudinal axis.
3. Stability about the lateral axis.
4. Stability at the center of pressure.
c. Elevators control movement about:
1. The lateral axis.
2. The vertical axis.
3. The longitudinal axis.
4. The horizon.
d.
The five stresses acting on an airplane in flight are:
1. Tension, bending, torsion, compression and thrust.
2. Lift, weight, thrust, gravity and drag.
3. Tension, compression, bending, shear and torsion.
4. Load factors which affect the balance of an airplane in flight.
e. Holding top rudder causes a:
1. Spin.
2. Stall.
3. Slip.
4. Skid.

EXERCISE NO. 4 (You have 15 minutes
to complete this exercise.)
1. Name and then cite an example of each of the five stresses imposed
on an airplane in flight.
2. Explain in your own words the comparison between the structural
design of a bridge and an airplane.
3 . Wr i t e a s t a t e m e n t w h y l o a d p l a c e m e n t a ff e c t s t h e fl y i n g c h a r a c t e r istics of an airplane.

LessonXl
EXERCISE NO. 1
(You have 5 minutes to complete this exercise.) 1. Place a T in
the blank space which precedes a true statement; place an F in
the blank space which precedes a false statement.
a .................Transonic speed includes all speeds less than the
speed of sound.
b ................
The Math number of an airplane is its air speed in miles per hour
divided by the speed of sound
c ................ A shock wave is a piling up of air in front of an object
moving faster than the speed of sound.
d ……………Reducing the thickness of an aircraft wing reduces
the speed of the relative air flow over the wing.
.
e ..................
Shock waves can form when an airplane is flying at subsonic
speed.
f ..................
Supersonic speeds are designated by a Mach number.
g……………In supersonic flight, a shock wave tends to follow the
original line of flight of an airplane after it has changed course
h. .................. Supersonic boom is the term applied to the
needle-shaped object protruding from the nose of high speed
fighters.
i…….…....... Airplanes designed in accordance with the Area Rule
have fuselages pinched at the waist.
j ................
Sweepback delays the formation of shock waves in both subsonic
and supersonic flight.

EXERCISE NO. 2
(You have 10 minutes to complete this exercise.) 1. Fill in the blank
spaces with the word, or words, that properly complete the
statement.
a. Supersonic speeds are designated by a
……………………….number instead of by ………………..
per……………….
b. Mach number is obtained by dividing air speed in ………….. per
…………...................... by the speed of sound.
c. An airplane flying at four times the speed of sound has a Mach
number of .................................................
d. Under standard conditions the speed of sound at sea level
is .................................................. mph.
e. The sonic barrier is reached when the speed of an airplane
reached
the ........................................................................................................
f. Attached to the trailing edge of the vertical stabilizer is
the……………………………..
g. There are two principal types of wing. cons)ruction They are
…………………………………and
…………………………………………..
h. Speeds greater than the speed of sound are
termed ..............................
…………………………………..
i. The Reynolds number of an airfoil changes as the
……………………………, …………………………………………….
and .......................................................
of air changes.
j………………………, ……………….., ……………………………., and
…………………..are auxiliary flight control members.

EXERCISE NO. 3
(You have 5 minutes to complete this exercise.) 1. Draw a circle
around the number preceding the phrase which is best to make
the statement a correct expression.
a. A type of military airplane which is quite similar to a civilian
type is:
1. A bomber.
2. A transport.
3. A fighter.
4. A jet trainer.

b. Airplanes are classified on the basis of:
1. Exterior, interior, installed equipment and landing gear.
2. Pusher, tractor, in-line or radial.
3. Purpose, engine, wing and landing gear.
4. Clipped wing, sweptback wing, delta wing or straight wing.
c. The two basic types of fuselage construction are:
1. Semi-cantilever and cantilever.
2. Longerons and stringers.
3. Truss and monocoque.
4. Monocoque and semi-monocoque.
d. The principal structural parts of a wing are:
1. Fabric, metal and spars.
2. Spars, ribs and cap strips.
3. Stiffeners, stringers and ribs.
4. Spars, ribs and stringers.
e. A type of landing flap which can be recessed into an airfoil is
called:
1. A spoiler.
2. A Fowler flap.
3. A split flap.
4. A cowl flap.
EXERCISE NO. 4
(You have 15 minutes to complete this exercise.)
1. Draw a top view of an airplane which will be least affected by
shock waves as it passes through the transonic zone.
2. Draw a top view of an uncovered wing structure and name as
many structural parts of the wing as you can.
3. List the flight controls which make up the main and auxiliary
groups.

LessonXll
EXERCISE NO. 1
(You have 5 minutes to complete this exercise.) 1. Place a T in
the blank space which precedes a true statement; place an F in
the blank space which precedes a false statement.
a ......……… Instruments are classified into four major groups.
b ....................Pressure in a hydraulic system diminishes in
direct proportion to distance.

c ................... Operation of a hydramatic propeller employs the
principle of hydroids.
d …………….Bernoulli discovered the principle of hydraulics.
e …………….. The application of the hydraulic principle makes
it possible to increase a force originally exerted.
f ………….. A manifold pressure gauge is an engine instrument.
g ................. A bourbon tube reacts to pressure.
h ………….. A diaphragm reacts to spring tension and
temperature.
i……………Solenoids are used to operate large switches and
valves.
j .................. A drift meter is considered to be a pressure
instrument.
EXERCISE NO. 2
(You have 10 minutes to complete this exercise.) 1. Fill in the blank
spaces with the word, or words, that properly complete the
statement.
a……………….... discovered the principle of hydraulics.
b …………………instruments, …………………………….instruments
………………….........................
instruments and …………………………
instruments make up the four major groups of airplane instruments.
c. Resistance of a metal to the flow of electrical current changes
directly as its ……………………… changes.
d. Pressure instruments employ either a .........................................
or a ……………………………….
e. Another name for an altimeter is
…………………………………barometer.
f……………………………………..
instruments include the clock, compass, directional gyro and drift
meter.
g. Voltage is the force that………………………………….
an electrical current through a wire.
h. ……………………………………………….,
…………………………….., and …………………………………..
are three airplane components which may be operated hydraulically.
i. One multi-engine airplane might employ well over
…………………………………..
aircraft instruments
j. It would be impossible to fly from point to point through clouds
without …………………………………………….
and ……………………………………………
instruments.

EXERCISE NO. 3
(You have 5 minutes to complete this exercise.] 1. Draw a circle
around the number preceding the phrase which is best to make the
statement a correct expression.
a. The physicist who discovered the principle of hydraulics was:
1.
Newton.
2.
Edison.
3.
Bernoulli.
4. Pascal.
b. An example of a flight instrument is:
1.
Compass.
2. Altimeter.
3. Oil pressure.
4. Air temperature.
c. Mechanism which converts change-in-resistance to change-incurrent is:
1. A voltmeter.
2. A Wheatstone Bridge.
3 A bourbon tube.
4. A voltage regulator.
d. A magneto can also be classed as a:
1. Voltage amplifier.
2. Generator.
3. Conductor.
4. Solenoid.
e. Piston A is one square inch in area. Piston B is 20 square inches in
area. When piston A exerts a 2-lb. force, the force exerted on piston B
will be:
1. 40 Ibs.
2. 100 Ibs.
3. 80 Ibs.
4. 20 Ibs.

EXERCISE NO. 4
( Yo u h a v e 1 5 m i n u t e s t o c o m p l e t e t h i s e x e r c i s e . )
1. State Pascal's principle of hydraulics.
2. Draw an instrument panel and list as many instruments as you can
in each of the four major groups.
3. In fifty words describe the importance of hydraulic and electrical
systems to modern day flying.

LessonXlll
EXERCISE NO. 1
(You have 5 minutes to complete this exercise.) 1. Place a T in
the blank space which precedes a true statement; place an F in
the blank space which precedes a false statement.
a ……………. Fuselage structural stations are usually numbered
from a zero point at the nose of the airplane.-b. …………….The
center of pressure is the point at which the force of gravity is
assumed to be concentrated.
c .......………. The ideal location for the center of pressure would
be back from the leading edge of a wing.
d. ……………. A 10 lb. weight held 18 inches from the body
would exert a downward force at the hand of 180 inch pounds.
e ................The fore and aft center of gravity limits for an aircraft
are computed in inches from the reference point.
f ……………..
Center of gravity and center of pressure must be relatively
close~ insure longitudinal balance.
g ................
Elevators and other control surfaces are not marked with
structural stuns.
h .....………. In a 40-passenger airplane, it would make no
difference if a total passenger load of 10 sat in the most
rearward seats.
i ......…………. In the formula "M equals AW', M is a product
known as a moment; A is the length of the arm, and W is the
weight of an object.
j…………………..Lift acts perpendicular to,the center of gravity.

EXERCISE NO. 2
(You have 10 minutes to complete this exercise.)
1. Fill in the blank spaces with the word, or words, that properly
complete the statement.
a. The weight of the contents of fuel tanks and baggage
compartments affect the …………………………….
and ……………………………………
stability of an airplane.
b. The ……………………………….. and ……………………….
center of gravity limits must be known before an airline can be loaded
properly.

c. The most forward center of pressure position is about
…………………….
of the chord line aft of the leading edge of a wing.
d. It would be extremely difficult to assembly the many parts of an
airplane properly without a system of .........………………………..
e. The center of pressure moves forward as the angle of attack
………………………………….
f. In flight, when a person walks to the rear of an airplane, the center of
gravity moves …………………………………….
g. In flight, the center of gravity of an airplane changes as
……………………….
is consumed.
h. There is a direct relationshlp between stability and .........................
and
……………………………………..
i. As the angle of attack decreases, the
……………………………………….
………………………………….
……………………………. moves rearward.
j. The ………………………….
……………………………..
is the point at which the force of gravity is assumed to be concentrated.
EXERCISE NO. 3
(You have 5 minutes to complete this exercise.) 1. Draw a circle around
the number preceding the phrase which is best to make the statement
a correct expression.
a. Two important airplane components which affect weight and balance
and whose locations are indicated by station numbers are:
1. Landing gear and propellers.
2. Radio equipment and instruments.
3. Fuel tanks and baggage compartments.
4. Baggage compartments and control surfaces.
b.
The center of pressure moves forward as the:
1. Center of gravity moves rearward.
2. Center of gravity moves forward.
3. Angle of attack increases.
4. Angle of attack decreases
c. Chord is defined as the distance between the imaginary
perpendiculars erected:
1. From wing tip to wing tip.
2. From the wing spars to the horizontal stabilizer spars.
3. At the leading and trailing edges of a wing.
4. At the center of gravity and the center of pressure.

d. Usually the distance from the center of gravity to the
reference point is computed in:
1. Foot pounds.
2. Feet.
3. Pounds
4. Inches.
e. The ideal location of the center of gravity would be:
1. Three-tenths rearward of the mean effective chord.
2. Four-tenths rearward of the mean effective chord.
3. One-third rearward of the leading edge of a wing.
4. Fifty percent of the mean effective chord.
EXERCISE NO. 4
At this point, if you have any question on the material covered in
the previous seven classes, bring it to the attention of the
instructor. This period will be devoted to answering any
questions which you or the other students desire to have
reviewed.