File #1333: "Aviation and You (1957).pdf"

Aviation and You (1957).pdf

PDF Text

Text

Aviation
And
You

HAROLD E.
MEHRENS Writer
WILLIAM E.
ROWLAND Art Director

A V I A T I O N
A N D
Y O U

Copyright 1955 by Civil Air Patrol, Incorporated
(Revised 1957)

Foreword

NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE

EmMett A. Betts
Director, Betts Reading Clinic
WillIs C. Brown
Specialist for Aviation Education Division of
State and Local School Systems Office of
Education
Leslie A. Bryan
Director, institute of Aviation
University of ILLinois
John H. Furbay
Director
Air World Education
Trans.World Airlines, Inc.
George N. Gardner
Superintendent. Educational Services Pan
American World Airways System John L.
Goodwin
Associate Professor
University of California
Department of Business Administration
Dawson C. McDowell
Director. Institute of Tropical Meteoeology
University of Puerto Rico
Merlyn McLaughlin, Lt. Col.. USAF
58 Gruber Street
Des Moines, Iowa
Raymond O. Mertes
Director, School and College Service United
Air Lines
Kenneth E. Newland
Occupations Division
Stephens College

CIVIL AIR

PATROL

BOLLING AIR

Willoughby E. Sams. Consultant
Aviation Education
California State Department o~ Education

Harry C. Schmid
State Director
Vocational Division
Department o| Education State
of Minnesota Frank E. Sorenson
Professor of Education Teachers
College
The University of Nebraska
Roland H. Spaulding Professor
in Education in Charge of
Aeronautical Education New
York Universlty School of
Education Parker Van Zandt
International Staff, N.A, TO
USRO Defense I
Paul A, Wilkinson
Denver Public Schools Harry
Zaritsky
Audio-Visual Division Naval
Medical School National Naval
Medical Center Jordan L.
Larson
Superintendent of Schools
Mount Vernon. New York

FORCE

BASE

Price/Fifty Cents/per copy

WASHINGTON, D. C.

The discovery of the secret of powered-flight inaugurated a series of
technological and sociological changes which in a few short years
have drastically changed our ways of life and consequently have
imposed vast educational problems upon society.
Because its travel speeds make the world a smaller place, Aviation,
paradoxically, has expanded our horizons, bringing individuals and
nations into close contact with the language systems, ideologies, and
cultures of other peoples and nations. International tensions are
aggravated. Conflicts are inevitable, unless education fully recognizes
the responsibilities an air age imposes upon it and takes steps to
dispatch these as expeditiously as possible. The domestic as well as
the international scene is likewise affected by aviation.
This makes doubly important programs of aviation education for
American youth.
Aware of (1) the urgent need for aviation education, (2) the fact that
practical considerations may delay the introduction into local school
systems programs of aviation education, and (3) the growing use by
schools of the service of cooperating agencies, the Civil Air Patrol has
undertaken two major tasks.
First, it has inaugurated an air youth movement, its Cadet Program,
and it maintains an aviation education program for its cadets. Next, it
has established a school, college, and community service program.
Within the framework of these programs instructional texts and audiovisual aids are prepared, teacher education projects in aviation
education are initiated and served, and aviation curriculum
consultation is provided upon request.
The series of booklets this foreword introduces will help place the goal
of aviation education within the reach not only of the youth who are
Civil Air Patrol Cadets but also of other youth enrolled in the nation's
public schools. Those who make proper use of the series will have
built a foundation for successful living in the air age.
WALTER. AGEE.
Major General, USAF
National Commander
Civil Air Patrol

Preface

Aviation and You is one of a series of six booklets designed
specifically for use in the aviation education programs of
Civil Air Patrol. The booklets in this series are aimed at
providing the reference reading and teaching materials
necessary for completing" portions of Phase II of the Civil Air
Patrol Cadet Training Program outlined in Civil Air Patrol
Manual 30-2.
An instructional 35 mm. color, sound filmstrip is available to
help teach the materials in this booklet.
Similar filmstrips will be provided to accompany the other
booklets in the series.
The materials of instruction such as the booklets and
filmstrips in this series can be of value to students and
teachers in any aviation education program. Those working
with adults may also find this material helpful if the
instructional or informational goal is general education as it
relates to aviation.
It is the purpose of this booklet to discuss the importance of
aviation, to reveal how it has influenced both man's thoughts
and deeds, and to provide information concerning aviation
careers. In effect, this booklet proposes to motivate toward
further study in aviation those who read it or study its
content. When used in conjunction with its complementary
sound filmstrip, it will be found an excellent teaching
instrument. Instructors should obtain from Civil Air Patrol the
suggestions for students and instructors which supplement
the booklet.

Although the first use of this booklet will be with
Civil Air Patrol cadets, other uses will undoubtedly be
made of it. For example, secondary schools will employ
it as a source of basic information for aviation education elective courses or for programs of aviation education by integration or correlation. This booklet will be
found of considerable value in both social studies and
career-guidance type courses.
Special acknowledgments for the technical advice
g i v e n a r e d u e t h e f o l l o w i n g p e r s o n s : F r a n k W.
H a n s l e y, C o l o n e l , U S A F ; Wa l t e r W. T h o m p s o n , L i e u t e n a n t C o l o n e l , U S A F ; S e y m o u r E . L a t h a m , M a j o r,
U S A F ; a n d E v a r i c e C . M i r e , M a j o r , U S A F. I a l s o
wish to acknowledge the splendid cooperation received
from the National Educational Advisory Committee
of the Civil Air Patrol whose names are listed elsewhere in this booklet. The members of the committee
offered many worthwhile suggestions which helped improve the quality of this publication.

MERVIN K. STRICKLER, Jr.
Director of Aviation Education
Headquarters, Civil Air Patrol

Your lifetime will be spent in a world dominated by aviation.
Historians who
observe the great and dramatic changes in human thought
and action that take place as methods of transportation
develop call our period of history the Air Age.
The major event which marked the birth of aviation
happened in 1903; the
major events which introduced the other great historical eras
occurred before the dawn of history. The invention
of the boat and of the wheel are examples of these. The
boat made it possible for men to travel over the surface of
the water, to trade with other men of remote, coastal
communities and to exchange ideas and adopt the cultural
practices of these communities. The wheel made it easy for
men to travel over the surface of the land and to extend their
influence to inland communities.
The discovery of the secret of powered-flight and the
applications of this discovery more than any other
comparable events are profoundly affecting the nature of the
world in which you live. The invention of the aircraft wing;
the invention of aircraft engines; the search for new sources
of potential power, which led to the discovery of methods for
releasing atomic energy; all these in concerted application
give the Air Age its character.
A twelve-second airplane flight made by Orville Wright at
Kitty Hark, North Carolina, on December 17, 1903, was a
first stone laid in the foundation of your world. This flight, the
first of a series in which Wilbur Wright also participated,
covered a distance of only 120 feet. This achievement was
possible because the Wright brothers built upon work done
by others.
Mythology and history record early attempts by men to fly.
History also reports that it was not until research became a
tool of science that serious solutions to the problems of
human flight were made by men of many nations. The
research of Cayley and Pilcher,

1955

1 9 0 3

Englishmen ; Lilienthal, a German; Chanute, a Frenchman,
as well as that of many other pioneer scientists of many
nations contributed indirectly to the first flight of a heavierthan-air craft.
Since the Wright brothers, the discoveries of men engaged
in scientific research and experimentation have brought
about both rapid development in aviation and accelerating
changes in whatever aviation affects.
Travel and transportation speeds considered impossible a
quarter of a century ago are demonstrated daily.
On May 21, 1957, the 30th anniversary of Lindbergh's
historic flight, a United States jet aircraft (an F-100)
followed the route to Europe that the Lindbergh flight
followed. It took Lindbergh's aircraft thirty-three hours and
thirty minutes to make the trip ; the F-100 made the trip in
six hours and thirty-five minutes.
The year 1957 also saw a number of other important
aviation events take place. In January 1957 three jetpowered bombers of the United States Strategic Air

Command flew non-stop around the world. In May
1957 a twin-engine jet aircraft, the Caravelle, designed
for use in commercial aviation, flew from New York
to the Washington National Airport in 45 minutes,
and two F-100's flew from London to Los Angeles via
Jamestown, Virginia, in fourteen hours and fifteen
minutes. They reached Jamestown eight hours after
leaving London. Three hundred fifty years ago, it took
128 days for those who established Jamestown to travel
from London to the shores of America.
Tl~ere is a very close relationship between what has
happened in aviation and what is going to happen in
aviation. Consequently, the one who predicts the future of aviation with any degree of success must know
the trends revealed by the history of aviation. This is
as true of vocational opportunities in aviation as it is
in other aspects of aviation. An expanding industry
that in a half century created jobs for approximately
one million people will very likely triple this number
in another half century.
In this book you will find answers to some of your
questions about aviation and aviation vocations. More
often, you will find factual data about trends in aviation and related industries from which to draw your
own conclusions about the future. In the other books
of this series of six, and by means of the sound-film
strips which supplement them, you will find answers to
other questions about aviation. You may find answers
to questions that you hadn't thought to ask. You will
learn the things every Air Age citizen should know:
1. The airplane, its power plant, and all the equipment used by the pilot and those on the ground who
make his flight possible illustrate the application of
the principles and methods of the sciences and mathematics which you may already have studied in your
high school classes.
2. Aviation has modified concepts and understandings taught in the social studies courses offered by
your schools.
3. Aviation offers many career opportunities both
civil and military to both young men and young
women.

A V I A T I O N

Your dictionary will tell you that aviation is the act
and practice of operating heavier-than-air craft. Actually the meaning of the term has come to include
much more.
Aviation may be defined from several viewpoints. To
the pilot, aviation does mean operating his airplane or
helicopter. To the sociologist, aviation is a social force.
To the military man, it is a means of defense. The
industrialist regards it as a solution to his transportation problems. The manager of an airline thinks of
it as a business enterprise. The teacher considers it a
worthy subject of study. You imagine it to be a fascinating activity with which you would like to become
better acquainted. As a matter of fact the meaning of
the term, aviation, includes not only the activity of
flight but also all of the impacts of this activity. For
it is the effects of aviation which have made it important.
Probably the most astounding thing about aviation
is that it has become so important in such a short time.
Yet it is easy to understand the rapid growth of aviation's influence if you remember that among other

things aviation means the air age---the age of the wing-a period of time characterized by air-travel and
transportation. It is these two facts, that air travel knows
few obstacles and that it increases the speed of long
distance transportation so greatly, which have caused
recent dramatic changes in the course of human events.
Soon you will be able to travel from coast to coast in six
hours by commercial aircraft. Military aircraft already
have flown this distance in four hours. It took the
pioneers who expanded our country westward six
months to travel from Independence, Missouri to San
Francisco, a distance only half as great. In the days of
"horse and buggy" travel, one who lived on a farm or in a
village may have journeyed all day to reach the county
seat. Today by airplane you can reach your nation's
capital in less than one day, no matter where

you live. As a matter of fact you can reach by air any
capital of any nation from any airport anywhere in the
world more readily than George Washington could reach
Philadelphia from Mr. Vernon by stage-coach.
Until the present century, people lived very much as did
those who founded our country. These early pioneers
and all others before them to the dawn of civilization lived
in the age of the wheel. The age of the boat very likely
preceded the age of the wheel. You live in the air age--the age of the wing.
The boat restricted transportation and travel, the
conveyance of goods and people, to the surface of the
water. During the age of the boat, cities were confined to
coast lines and harbors. Early civilizations emerged
along the waterways. Not until the invention of the wheel
could men transport themselves and their produce
readily over the surface of the land. Developments in the
uses which could be made of the wheel enabled our
forefathers to travel wherever railroads and highways
could be built. But the invention of the airplane wing
made it possible for men to travel through the air and
over all obstacles, such as mountains, deserts, swamps,
and ice caps which make surface travel slow and costly,
if not impossible. Moreover, air transportation is swift
beyond the most fanciful imagination of a generation ago.

Aviation's achievements are still so sensational that
each day newspapers carry aviation stories. Orchids
from Hawaii brighten your festive occasions; fresh,
appetizing, and out-of-season foods from remote winter
gardens appear upon your table; letters from friends
in far away places are at hand almost the day after
their mailing. Many of the movies you see, the books
you read, and the songs you sing have aviation themes.
Any day at any airport of any major city you can hear
strange languages spoken by travelers from other lands.
How different from our country's pioneer days when
the visitor from another village or country was regarded as an outlander.

T H E

I M P O R T A N C E

Aviation is of first importance to you in the ways in which
it will influence your life. It will affect your life because it
affects your social, economic, and political surroundings.
It affects you because it affects the way all people live
an work and because it has influenced greatly the nature
of our relationship with other nations.
imes aviation seems both a blessing and curse.
It enables peoples the world over to travel with greater
ease and to cover the globe with unique and beneficial
contributions of their cultural systems. Yet at the same
time it aggravates tensions that have long existed
among different cultures. World leaders can readily
assemble in conference, Yet such a conference does not

O F

A V I A T I O N

automatically assure that harmony of understanding will result from the meeting.
Aviation, however, has created a period
of transition in which men and women are
changing ideas about many things. We
have come to measure distance not in miles
but in terms of hours and minutes. The
most direct route to the Orient requires
that we head not west but north. We do
not fly over the ground but through the
air, and the shortest path to Paris at a
given time may be through an air mass
t h a t d r i f t s u s m a n y m i l e s o ff a d i r e c t ,
surface course.
Perhaps the greatest changes in the
ideas held by the average American are
those about our relations with other countries. There was a time when the majority
of our people believed we should be isolationists--"go it alone." However, since
aviation has brought all nations so close
together in terms of travel time, isolationism as a national policy is no longer given
serious consideration. Moreover, aviation
has helped to make our country one of the
most powerful nations of the world and to
place it in a position of world leadership.
While our forefathers were struggling
to achieve freedom from tyranny and to
establish a democratic way of life, other
leaders in other countries, who disparaged
democratic ideals, imposed a very different
system upon the peoples they governed.
The heirs of these men have acquired great
power; their ideologies and their military
strength offer ominous threats to our way
of life.

If leaders in other countries of the world were responsible,
as our leaders are, to the people they govern, we could
relax our vigilance. Unfortunately, the vast majority of
human kind is uninformed or misinformed about the
processes of democracy. Hence those who comprise this
majority can be readily exploited by unscrupulous men.
Such men have seized great power.
The threats this situation makes to our security must be
countered by the best means at our command. For the first
time in history, the American continent is vulnerable to
attack by aircraft. By the same token, aircraft must help
oppose such attacks.
Before aircraft reached their present stage of development,
the countries of the Western Hemisphere were protected
from outside attack by surface obstacles such as the ice
cap over the Arctic area and by the oceans, east and west.
Today attack, if it comes, will be from the skies. Rather than
upon physical barriers, defense today rests upon air power
and diplomacy.
The outcome of World War II was uncertain until the allied
powers gained control of the airspace above enemy
countries. The efforts made by the American people helped
to gain this control and helped to win World War II. Our men
and women built thousands of aircraft; our aviation schools,
both civil and military, trained thousands of airmen--pilots,
mechanics, and technicians. During this period of time, a
half million young men and women throughout the United
States studied about aviation, just as you are doing.
It was the efforts, during World War II, of the men and
women who built aircraft, flew them and kept them in repair,
and of the youth who studied, preparing to

take over such tasks when their turn came---it was the
total of all these efforts which made the United States
a world leader in aviation. It is important to the security
of Western Civilization that we hold this leadership.
Your interest is now essential if we are to keep it.
Aviation has brought into being two great industries -the aircraft manufacturing and the air transport
industries. Together these two groups employ more
people than any other industrial group. Moreover,
these two great industries keep many smaller
industries active. Some small businesses use aircraft
exclusively in providing customer service and many
major industries, when expanding the scope of their
activities, have found aviation indispensable.
Each day many young people of this country are
called upon to fill one or another kind of aviation job in
military aviation, in an aviation industry, or in an
industry or business affected by aviation. For this
reason schools and colleges are involved. For if you
seek an aviation career, you train in school or collegepublic, private, industrial, or military--to meet the
requirements of such career. Should you seek a
vocational career other than in aviation, you still need
general understanding of the ways in which aviation is
affecting your world and will affect you.
The following sections of this booklet will tell you more
about the growth of both aviation and its influence.
You will observe that the rapid growth of aviation has
created many new jobs. Perhaps you will conclude
that aviation offers you opportunities for both
employment and patriotic service.

T H E
AV I AT I O N
M A N U F A C T U R I N G
I N D U S T R Y

The buildings in which aircraft are manufactured may
cover an area as large as a dozen football fields.
Among these structures are office buildings,
warehouses, and factories. They will be near an airport.
Some of them will have the appearance of the familiar
hangar which you may have seen during an airport
visit.
Should you wish to visit an aircraft manufacturing plant,
such a visit must be arranged in advance. At the
appointed time on the day of your visit, you call at the
guest bureau. You will be assigned a guide who will
explain to you some of the important things you will
see.

Perhaps your guide will first show you the engineering section. This is the place where new types of airplanes are designed. Since a lot of planning goes into
the building of an airplane, it may take several years
from the time an engineer starts its design until an
airplane makes its first operational flight.
A single aircraft manufacturing industry may employ as many as one thousand people in its engineering
section. Many of these people help to improve the
design of a new type of airplane.
Many of the young men and women employed in
aircraft engineering were high school students only a
few years ago. Some of these may have become interested in an engineering career during a visit to an
aircraft manufacturing plant. Did you know that in
1957, the aircraft industry needed several thousand
engineers in addition to the number available?

The Chief engineer of an aircraft manufacturing firm
explains to his assistants the things a new airplane should
do--how high it should fly, how fast, the "pay-load" it should
carry, and the fuel it should consume under different
circumstances. He gets his information from prospective
customers--the air-transport companies, or a branch of the
military services.
The aeronautical engineers base design of an aircraft upon
principles which study and practice have shown to be
sound. The drawings they make serve the factory worker
much as an architect's blueprint serves a carpenter. These
describe every detail of the aircraft to be built.
In order to avoid unnecessary expense, designs are first
tested by small models built by hand to exact scale.
That is, each part of the model is not only a replica of each
part of the proposed airplane, but also all parts are
constructed in exact proportion to those of the proposed
airplane.
After the scale model is built, its "behavior" in flight is
observed in a wind tunnel--a device for subjecting airfoils
(aircraft wings or sections of aircraft wings or lifting
surfaces) or models of airfoils to the forces they will
experience in actual flight. When wind tunnel tests indicate
inadequate performance, changes in the design of the
model are made. Subsequent tests and subsequent
changes will finally bring about the type of performance
desired.
After wind-tunnel tests of the airplane model have been
completed, a life-size replica of the proposed airplane is
made of wood. This is called a mock-up and helps the
production engineers solve the problems which they may
encounter. Production engineers select and test the
materials from which airplane parts are built.
They also select airplane accessories, such as instruments
and radios, and specify the location of these in the
airplane.

The first flying model of a new airplane is called a
prototype. It is built before the new airplane goes into
mass production. It is flown by a test pilot who may
also be an aeronautical engineer. The test pilot observes, records, and reports the airplane's performance
during actual flight. Project engineers study test-pilot
reports and data obtained by automatic cameras and
other recording equipment installed in the prototype.
When necessary to obtain, proper performance, changes
are made in the structure of the prototype. After the
new airplane performs successfully during a series of
test flights, it is put into production.
Once a new type aircraft is put into production, the
work of many other people is required. The chief tool
engineer and his assistants put the plant in shape to
produce. The director of procurement and his assistants
purchase some of the airplane parts from industries
which contract to build these. Among such parts are
engines, tires, radios, and electric cables. Among them
are also aircraft, engine, and navigation instruments.
Other parts used in the construction of an airplane
are built in the plant itself. Huge hydraulic presses
are used to form wing-spar sections, bulkheads, and
fuselage sections. Some presses exert as much as 3,000
tons of pressure, can stamp out twenty-four identical
parts at one time, and require ten men to operate.
Along the assembly line, which extends the full length
of the plant, fixtures hold the airplane's parts in place
while they are assembled. Assemblers, riveters, welders, and inspectors are among those who work on the
assembly line. At one end of the line, first steps are
taken to assemble the airframe; at the other end the
aircraft emerges as a finished product ready to be
test-flown.
There are approximately one hundred manufacturing corporations in the United States which make airplanes, airplane engines, or propellers. Some of the

were built. Between 1939 and 1953, a period of 15
years, 450,000 airplanes were built. Had all these 500,000 aircraft been B-36's, and had they been placed
wing tip to wing tip along the equator with only a few
feet between wing tips, they would have encircled the
earth.
In 1939, the value of all aircraft manufactured in
the United States was about $250,000. In 1953, $8.5
billion worth of aircraft were built. $16.5 billion worth
of orders for aircraft placed that year could not be
filled. In terms of the value of manufactured product,
the aircraft manufacturing industry of 1953 was 34,000
times more significant than was the aircraft manufacturing industry of 1939. The manufacture of airplanes
has become big business. The vocational opportunities
offered by this industry should be thoroughly explored
by you before you choose a career.

assembly plants build comparatively heavy and expensive
type airplanes. But even these plants obtain engines,
powerplant accessories, and the propellers they use from
other manufacturers. To make these aircraft components
and accessories takes many workmen, among whom are
machinists, welders, woodworkers, electronic technicians,
and electronic experts. Some of the larger plants employ as
many as 20,000 men and women. The entire aircraft
manufacturing industry in 1955 employed 800,000 men and
women.
To help you understand the nature of aviation's growth since
Wilbur and Orville Wright made the first successful airplane
flights in 1903, it is necessary to reveal some important
aviation facts. Since 1903, one-half million airplanes have
been built. Between 1903 and 1938, a period of 35 years,
only 50,000 airplanes

The operations office, the traffic offices, and the air-carrier
maintenance shops and repair stations are the three departments of an airline found at a typical municipal airport.
Many interesting activities are conducted at the airport.
Another booklet of this series, called Airports, Airbases,
and The Paths of Flight, will tell you about these in some
detail.
Just as beforehand arrangements must be made by visitors at an aircraft manufacturing plant, so advance arrangements must be made by visitors at an air-carrier installation.
The receptionist will then make certain that the visitor is
shown through the installation and that each of its operations is explained.
Airline service includes transportation of passengers,
mail, express, and freight It is important not only to those
who conduct the nation's business, but also to those in charge
of the nation's defense.

The scheduled airlines maintain a Military Bureau
which helps solve transportation problems of both military passengers and freight. In 1954 through the help
of this bureau, almost a million military passengers
were carried by the scheduled airlines alone. This resulted in a manpower saving which is the equivalent of
10,000 men working 48 hours a week for an entire year.
In 1954 the airlines of the United States carried
33,000,000 non-military passengers an average of 650
miles. To do this, they flew a total of 21.5 billion passenger miles. This is the equivalent of one aircraft
carrying 43 passengers making 20,000 trips around the
earth at the equator. Flying at 250 miles per hour and
assuming no other obstacles, it would take over 200
years for the aircraft to complete these 20,000 flights.
By 1957, the number of non-military passengers carried by the airlines of the United States had increased
to 45,943,000.
Without the teamwork of their employees, neither
the type of service the airlines provide nor the unusual
growth of the airlines and their services would have
been possible.

It takes the cooperative efforts of those other than
pilots and stewardesses, important as these are, to provide our nation's air transportation services. Pilots
operate and navigate airplanes; hostesses make sure
that the passengers are comfortable; but it takes many
more employees performing many other jobs to keep
air-carrier transports flying.
Airplanes must be kept in perfect mechanical condition. Passenger and cargo space must be sold. Reservations must be made. Passengers and baggage must
b e l o a d e d p r o m p t l y. M a i l , e x p r e s s , a n d f r e i g h t m u s t
be stowed in the aircraft properly, so that weight distribution is balanced. On some aircraft, navigators plot
the course to be flown. Flight engineers must calculate
fuel needs. Maintenance men must make sure that required amounts of fuel and oil, and no more than
these amounts, are on board. Meteorologists must observe and forecast the weather. Communicators must
give pilots-in-flight weather data and other essential
information. Dispatchers, before they authorize the
departure of a flight, need to make certain that all
required conditions are met by the pilot, his crew, and
his aircraft.
It takes both operating and administrative personnel
to run an airline. In addition to jobs to be performed
which keep the airliners flying, many other tasks must
be performed by airline employees. Public relations
people help the general public understand air-carrier
service and the nature of aviation. Airlines find a use
for legal counselors, for instructors who train pilots,
flight engineers, and mechanics, and for a staff of accountants who keep financial records. Agents at every
airline terminal sell tickets and "check-in" passengers
before flight departure time.
To keep an airplane safe for flight, it must be properly maintained. A program of continuous maintenance
is followed by all airlines. The details of the program
differ from airline to airline, depending upon practices
an airline has found satisfactory for its purposes.

During periodic checks and overhauls, every part
of the airplane is inspected--the airframe, the powerplant, and the accessories. Parts that are worn beyond
prescribed tolerances are replaced. Whenever repairs
are needed, they are made. Some instruments are carefully overhauled; others, when found defective, are replaced by new ones; still others are replaced by new
ones after a prescribed period of service, whether or
not inspection reveals a faulty condition. It takes many
crews of mechanics and technicians to keep an airplane
safe for flight.
The men and women who repair and maintain aircraft must be trained for their job and skilled in its
performance. A Civil Aeronautics regulation requires
that major alterations and repair of aircraft and aircraft equipment must be made by mechanics certificated
by the Civil Aeronautics Administration, or under the
supervision of such mechanics. This requirement
makes the airframe and powerplant mechanics very
important people indeed.
All airlines check every aircraft and its powerplant before
each flight; all conduct daily or "turn-around" inspection of
equipment. However, the periodic service checks of
equipment differ from company to company and with the
type of equipment involved. One company checks its aircraft
after each has flown 115 hours.
This company rebuilds one-fourth of an airframe (an
airplane without its accessories) after each 3,000 hours of
flying time. At the end of 12,000 hours, the entire airframe
will have been rebuilt. The mechanics then start all over
again, and after the airplane has flown another 3,000 hours,
they again rebuild the section which at this time will have
logged 12,000 hours.
Some companies rebuild airframes after each 8,000 hours
of flying time. Both airframes and engines are given
complete overhauls after a specified number of operating
hours has been logged. Engines are rebuilt after the engine
has logged from 600 to 2,000 hours, depending upon the
kind of engine in use.

As a further assurance to the general public that aviation
services are safe, all civilian workers in aviation whose jobs
are critical are examined and their skills certified by the Civil
Aeronautics Administration.
Among such airmen are mechanics, control tower
operators, flight engineers, navigators, and pilots. Some
airlines require an airman to hold more than one certificate.
For example, a flight engineer is sometimes required to
hold, in addition to his flight engineer certificate, either a
mechanic's certificate with an airframe and aircraft
powerplant rating or a pilot certificate. To qualify for a
certificate and rating requires a candidate to make a
satisfactory grade on the proper examination.
This means study and practice; but it also means a
challenging career and a good salary.
To the casual observer, the scene in a hangar or repair
station might appear one of confusion. Actually, it is wellordered with each group of workmen and each individual
within a group having specific tasks and knowing very well
how to perform them.
One group with the help of proper tools, large cranes, and
overhead tracks removes the engines from an airplane.
Another group removes accessories from aircraft engines.
Another transfers engines or accessories to appropriate
repair stations where other technicians do their work. While
these activities are under way, airframe mechanics in the
hangars inspect and repair the airplane, and technical
experts at other stations are busy with propellers,
instruments, electrical equipment, or hydraulic components.
A young man or young woman who has mechanical aptitude
and training can find interesting and challenging work with
an airline. Should you, after you finish high school and
college, want employment with an airline, you apply to the
airline personnel staff.
Members of this staff will study your application and place
you in the job for which you best qualify. And, in many
instances you are helped to succeed in this job. For, inservice training and instructional pro-

grams conducted by most airlines make it possible for
employees to become increasingly proficient in the jobs they
hold.
The air transport industry as well as the aircraft
manufacturing industry has made great forward strides. To
better understand this rapid rate of growth, let us compare
the airlines of 1938 with those of 1954.
In 1938, sixteen air carrier companies operated 260
airplanes with an average seating capacity of 14
passengers. In 1954, thirty-two airlines operated in
scheduled flight 1,297 airplanes with an average seating
capacity of 46 passengers. On the basis of passenger
accommodations, the air transport industry of 1954 was 16
times as large as that of 1938.
In 1938, the scheduled airlines of the United States
employed 1,135 pilots and 9,008 other trained personnel. In
1954, they employed 9,437 pilots and 109,392 other trained
personnel. On the basis of employment opportunities, the
air transport industry of 1954 was almost 12 times as large
as that of 1938. By 1957, the people employed by the
airlines numbered 127,000.

INDUSTRIES
AFFECTED BY
AVIATiON

In 1938, only 34,879 miles of air routes were authorized
for scheduled airline use; in 1954, such authorized air
routes covered 78,384 miles---over twice the number
authorized in 1938. In 1954, the scheduled airlines
actually served 584 cities and flew 1,420,642 miles each
day, in distance, the equivalent of 3 round trips to the
moon.
Twenty-five times more passenger miles were flown in
1954 than were flown in 1938. Ninety times as many
express and freight ton-miles were flown in 1954 as were
flown in 1938. In 1954, ten times as much air mail was
carried by the airlines as the amount carried in 1938.
Twenty-seven times the amount of fuel purchased in 1938
was used by the air carrier companies in 1954. In 1938,
the net profit of the airlines was $5 million; in 1954, it was
$100 million. In a period of 15 years, the air transport
industry has increased the size of its profits twenty times.

Not only has aviation produced two unique
industries, grown to be giants in only a few
years and still growing, but it has affected
also all the traditional industrial areas that
reflect the interests and activities of
mankind.
Farmers and ranchers grow and market
grains, fruit, vegetables, and domestic
animals. Fishermen harvest the natural
resources of the seas; lumbermen the
natural resources of the forests ; miners
reclaim the mineral resources of the earth.
Manufacturers produce goods from the raw
materials of farm, ranch, fishery, forest, or
mine. Distribution and marketing place both
raw materials and finished product in the
hands of consumers. Aviation, which can
be classified as a manufacturing industry
and a transportation industry, both serves
and is served by all industrial areas.

G E N E R A L

The produce of farm, mine, and factory go into the
production of an airplane. The needs of aviation have
stimulated industrial and metallurgical research. Over 1,000
new companies have been created just to serve the aviation
industries. These contract with aircraft manufacturing
industries, the air transport industry, and the government.
Among the goods they produce are aircraft parts, and
components such as electrical and hydraulic devices and
instruments.
Several industries which were well established before
aviation reached its present importance now find the
aviation firms among their best customers. Typical of these
industries are tire manufacturers and the petroleum industry.
In 1954, for example, the scheduled airlines alone used
about 10 million gallons of oil and 1 billion gallons of
gasoline. This is enough oil and fuel to keep 25,000
automobiles operating for 50 years.

A V I A T I O N

General aviation is the term that designates general
uses of the airplane, such as those made by agriculture
and small business. It includes all aviation enterprise,
except the manufacture of aircraft and the operation of
scheduled and non-scheduled air transportation companies. The scheduled and non-scheduled transportation companies of the United States maintain their
service to the public with a total of only 1,802 aircraft.
In 1956, general aviation by comparison operated
62,886 aircraft. It employed over 200,000 pilots who,
in 1956, flew more than 10 million hours.
Farmers use airplanes to speed up the control of
insect pests and weeds, to check erosion, and for quick
trips to obtain needed supplies. Ranchers use aircraft
to feed stock--particularly when heavy snowfall isolates hungry herds--to patrol fence lines, to facilitate
prompt service to water pumps and windmills, to observe pasture conditions, and to locate strayed stock.
Fishermen use aircraft to spot schools of fish, to which
fishing boats are then dispatched. The forestry service
uses aircraft to control insect pests which attack trees,
and to reseed forest areas which have become eroded
or have been devastated by forest fires.

M I L I TA R Y
The mining industry uses aircraft to
help locate mineral and oil deposits.
Sometimes mining equipment is transported to mountainous areas inaccessible
except by air. The patrol of pipelines
can be done both speedily and effectively
when airplanes or helicopters are used.
One of the most important uses which
industry and business makes of the aircraft is to transport administrative personnel. In this way a company can
extend its activities to include widespread domestic or international operation. Over 30,000 aircraft are used in
business flying. Companies own 12,000
of these; individual business men own
the remainder. Business aircraft are
operated over 3 million hours each year.
Aviation's service to all industrial
areas employs over 30 times the number
of aircraft used by the airlines. These
fly approximately twice the number of
plane miles flown by the airlines of the
United States. The facts about general
aviation point up its importance and
reveal further the career opportunities
which aviation offers.

AV I AT I O N

The role of aircraft in World War II demonstrated
conclusively that modern war could not be waged
successfully if aircraft were not employed strategically,
tactically, and logistically. In recognition of the importance of
military aviation, Congress in 1947, by passing the National
Security Act, gave air power equal organizational status with
land and naval power. That year, 1947, saw both the
President's Air Policy Commission and the Congressional
Aviation Policy Board reaching identical conclusions
concerning the importance of national air power. Both
groups recommended the build-up of the USAF to seventy
groups, with a corresponding strengthening of naval
aviation. Moreover, practical necessity impelled other arms
of the military services to continue, and some to expand,
their use of aircraft. Any discussion of the general
importance of aviation to the progress and welfare of the

nation would be incomplete if military air power were not
considered.
The importance attached to military aviation is born out by the
recent annual expenditures of the USAF and Naval Aviation.
In 1953, USAF expenditures amounted to more than
$15,000,000,000; Naval Aviation expenditures amounted to
almost $3,000,000,000.
The personnel of the United States Air Force in 1957
numbered 915,000. Approximately 125,000 were officers;
approximately 10,000 were aviation cadets. The other
780,000 were airmen who, like their civilian counterparts,
perform numerous basic and highly important aviation tasks.
In 1951, the last year such information was available, the
USAF had a total of 19,021 airplanes of all types. During
1952 and 1953, the USAF accepted from manufacturers
15,177 additional aircraft. In 1951, the Navy had 13,213
aircraft. During 1952 and 1953, the Navy accepted 4,737
additional aircraft. Aircraft, built since World War II, whether
civil or military, have become much more complex than were
the aircraft manufactured before 1945. This fact makes the
work of the technical specialist in aviation increasingly
challenging.
Any review of the career opportunities available to you would
be incomplete were those opportunities offered by military
aviation not considered. The United States Air Force has
classified 43 career fields. The training and skills required by
military aviation operation are virtually the same as those
required by civil aviation. Consequently, training and
experience in one generally qualify a person for a similar
career in the other.
Military Aviation offers youth many career opportunities. One
interested in an aviation career should make a comparative
study of the rewards of civil and military aviation. The
education and training benefits of a USAF, or a Naval Aviation
career which are provided both airmen and aviation cadets
are attractive.

MILITARY AVIATION
STIMULATES
GENERAL PROGRESS
IN AVIATION

Progress in the manufacture of aircraft may be illustrated by
the following" In 1945, one of the speediest of fighter
airplanes, the P-51, flew at speeds of 470 miles per hour;
today's F-86 flies at 700 miles per hour.
In 1945 one of the speediest bombers, the B-17, flew at
speeds of 285 miles per hour; today's B-47 flies at 600 miles
per hour. Experimental aircraft have flown at double the
speed of sound! In 1945, commercial air transport aircraft
had average speeds of 150 miles per hour; today, many aircarrier, transport aircraft have average speeds of 225 miles
an hour. Moreover, air-carrier aircraft now in use which are
equipped with turboprop engines cruise at over 400 miles
per hour.

The increasing speeds at which aircraft operate have
been made possible as a result of research in many
different fields. In order to manufacture engines that
will supply necessary power, the metallurgist must be
called upon. For no matter how efficient the design of
a powerplant, the materials from which it is constructed must be able to withstand the great stresses
imposed upon them. The metallurgist likewise serves
the airframe manufacturer. Problems of refrigeration

are enormous, when aircraft travel faster than the
speed of sound. Friction caused by the rapid flow of the
air over the craft generates white hot heat. The refrigerating equipment of an F-86 is capable of cooling a
25 room building during the warmest summer day.
Much research also has been done to find solutions to
fuel and lubrication problems. Even the professional
areas of medicine, law, and education contribute greatly
to aviation's advance.
In view of achievements in aircraft speeds, it may
appear that the only opportunity for further pioneering
in flight lies in the area of "space-travel." It is true

that interplanetary travel and its possibilities challenge the
imagination of youth. Yet, many pioneer opportunities still
exist for developments in flight through the earth's
atmosphere. There is need for a commercial aircraft
whose cruising speed is 500 mph and whose landing
speed approaches zero. The helivector, the convertaplane,
and other experimental types currently undergoing tests,
are attempts to meet this need. Some day such craft may
be used to serve you as the automobile today is used to
serve the needs of your older contemporaries.
Whether or not you discover the principles basic to such
aircraft design, or make similar pioneering contributions to
a related field, there still remains opportunity for the use of
your talents in the field of aviation. The changes in the
world of reality which have been wrought by aviation are
so dramatic, that flight no longer needs to depend upon
fantasy in order to challenge the interest of youth such as
you.

Education has felt the impact of aviation for
two reasons. It has the responsibility for
preparing youth to fill aviation jobs requiring
highly skilled personnel. It must also modify
its curricula to the degree that each curricular
area has been affected by aviation. We find
public schools, trade schools, and colleges
conducting programs of aviation studies
which qualify young men and women for
aviation careers. And, we also find public and
private elementary and secondary schools
recognizing aviation's influence on general
education.
There are in the United States many schools
and colleges from which you can receive
instruction in the aeronautical professions. At
the most recent count 47 colleges conferred
degrees in Aeronautical Engineering on the
basis of a four-year curriculum; 22 colleges
conferred such degrees on the basis of a fiveyear curriculum. Twenty-five colleges offered
a program of studies in either Aeronautical
Administration or other aviation service fields.
Aviation trade schools have been established
in every state of the union.
There are 68 airframe and aircraft powerplant
mechanics schools. In 1956, these graduated
2,864 airframe and powerplant mechanics
There are 774 flight schools, 176 of which
teach both flight and related subjects. The
other 598 teach flight only.

AV I AT I O N

I N

E D U C A T I O N

Airlines, aircraft assembly factories, and aircraft
engine plants all maintain schools or apprentice training programs. In 1954, 24,954 young men and women
received training in aviation skills in aircraft assembly
plants; 2,337 youth received such training in aircraft
engine plants.
Civilian schools established to teach aviation skills
and trades such as those of Air Transport Pilots, Flight
Engineers, Commercial Pilots, Flight Instructors, Airframe Mechanics, Aircraft Power Plant Mechanics, and

the like are certificated by the Civil Aeronautics Administration. The graduates of these schools are likewise certificated and rated on the basis of examinations
prepared and administered by the CAA (Civil Aeronautics Administration).
In 1956, 45,036 student pilots and 16,399 private
pilot certificates were issued. Many to whom certificates were issued were trained in flight schools. The
8,419 commercial pilots and the 1,172 air transport
pilots, and all of the 6,993 receiving instrument pilot
ratings in 1956 had completed formal programs of
training.
The USAF offers a program of Aviation Training
which is more extensive than the combined programs
of public schools, trade schools, and airlines. This program is conducted on U.S. Air Force bases. There are
43 of these bases. Each day at many of these, hundreds
of new students begin training in one or another of 43
career fields. Hundreds of airmen and civilian graduates of the USAF instructor schools teach the thousands of young airmen learning to do the work of
aviation.
The need reported in 1956 for aeronautical engineers
will likely cause the colleges of the United States to
focus educational attention upon this area. Recent surveys show a serious decline in the number of engineering graduates from the professional schools of the
United States.

E N G I N E E R I N G G R A D U AT E S

1950

52,000

1954
9,000
In 1950, 52,000 young men and women graduated
from college with degrees in the field of engineering. In
1954, only 19,000 students graduated with such
degrees. As a result, the current shortage of engineers
is critical.
When the above figure is compared with the 35,000
engineers graduated in 1954 by the Soviet Union, the
effect is a sobering one. It is reported that the number
of engineering graduates in 1956 reached a total of
70,000 in the United States and 120,000 in the Soviet
Union. These figures should stimulate both thought and
action on your part and should help you or your friends
decide upon an appropriate career.
The Civil Air Patrol Cadet Program is a good place to
begin your aviation studies. This youth movement in
aviation offers you many experiences which will help

you decide whether or not you want to choose an aviation career and whether or not this should be in military or civil aviation. It will help you discover which
aviation specialty has the greatest appeal for you.
As a Civil Air Patrol cadet, you have opportunities
for many experiences : the orientation flights ; visits to
airports, airbases, aircraft assembly plants, air-carrier
installations, and aircraft engine factories; excursions
along the path of flight, into the realm of flight; and the
many other challenging activities. These experiences
with the Civil Air Patrol not only are fun but also display for you an array of interesting, pleasing, and
profitable career possibilities.

S U M M A R Y

Aviation is important! Each aspect of aviation is important!
But in what way are these important? Their importance
stems from the fact they center upon you. Their impact is
upon the world in which you live—upon the setting of your
activities--upon the environment which shapes your destiny;
hence, their impact is also upon you! The aircraft has
affected your security. It has made the entire world your
neighborhood.
It makes your life more interesting than it might otherwise
have been. It can be either your destruction or your
safeguard. It has a potential for good in that it can speed
the day when all the peoples of the world

reach respect for one another and understanding of
cultural differences; it has a potential for evil in that it can
aggravate the tensions that have kept half of human kind
in fear and distrust of the other half.
Yet the airplane and the power derived from its uses make
your world. The industries it has created offer you inviting
employment opportunities. There is no career activity in
which you might engage that has not felt its influence. You
are confronted with the changes it has helped bring about,
be these good or bad. Aviation is important because of the
changes it has made in your surroundings. However, it is
of greatest importance in the influence it has upon you. It
is for this reason that you are faced with the task of
learning to understand it, and of developing the attitudes,
skills, and judgment which will enable you to operate it,
maintain it, and control its effects.