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C I V I L A I R PAT R O L
-7
S
ORAL H 1 ~ T O R'~ ! N T E RV I EW

WNHC 26.83-14
M R : W I L L I A M PA U L B R I D G E S

N AT I O N A L H I S T O R I C ~ C O M M I T T E E
Headquarters Civil Air Patrol
Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama

C I V I L A I R PAT R O L

ORAL HISTORY PROGRAM

I nt e~'v i ew
of
Mr. William Paul Bridges

b y
Lieutenant Colonel Lester E. Hopper, CAP

Date: I00cet,:,be~: 196:3
Location: Manteo, North Carolina

KNOW ALL MEN BY THESE PRESENTS:

T h a t

I ,

5 u ' ~ l ) ~

~

I

~ i

., have this day participated
~ j

in an oral-magnetic-taped interview with 1-7"~ t_~_ ~J~.0~J~@,.~# C'~ P)
covering my best recollections of events and experiences which may be of
historical significance to the Civil Air Patrol.
I understand that the tape(s) and the transcribed manuscript resulting
therefrom will be accessioned into the Civil Air Patrol's Historial Holdings.
In the best interest of the Civil Air Patrol, I do hereby voluntarily give,
t r a n s f e r, c o n v e y, a n d a s s i g n a l l r i g h t , t i t l e , a n d i n t e r e s t i n t h e m e m o i r s
and remembrances contained in the aforementioned magnetic tapes and manuscript
to the Civil Air Patrol, to have and to hold the same forever, hereby relinquishing for myself, my executors, administrators, heirs, and assigns all
ownership, right , title, and interest therein to the donee expressly on the
condition of strict observance of the following restrictions:

__..__fV'o -

.

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D a t e d

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I ~ / I

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A c c e p t e d o n b e h a l f o f t h e C i v i l A i r P a t r o l b y. .

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Dated

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C I V I L A I R PAT R O L O R A L H I S T O R Y I N T E R V I E W S

Civil Air Patrol Oral Histor'y interviews were initiated ~n early
1982

by

Lt.

Col.

Lester

E.

Hopper,

C A P,

Patrol's National Historlcal Co[~~ittee.

of

the

Civil Air

The overall purpose of

" i
t h e s e i n t e r v i e w s i s " t o r e c o r d f o ~ " p o s t e r i t y t l ~ e a c ' ."t ~ v ]. .t. . .~

o f

zelec.t.ed rne[nbers )f the Civll Air Patrol.

The principle goal of these histories is to increase the base of
knowledge r.elatlng to 5he ea~"ly accomplishmenzs of Civil Air
Patrol members who in their own unique way contributed to the
d e f e n s e o f o u r g r e a t c o u n t r y,

Certa:inly l]ot of a seconda~-y

nature is the preservation of the contributions of individuals a~
Civil Air Patrol continues its growth.

FOREWORD
The following is a transcription of an oral history interview
recorded on magnetic: tape. Since only minor emerndations ]'~ve been
n~ade, the reader should consistently bear' in mind that he is
reading a transcript of spoken rather than the wi-itt.en word,
A d d i t i o n a l l y, n o a t t e m p t t o c o n fi r m t h e a c c u r a c y o f t h e i n f o r m a tion contained herein ]]as been made, As a restllt, the
reflects the interviewee's personal recollections of a

transcript
situation

as he remembered it at the time of the interview,

EditorJal notes and additions made by Civil Air Patrol historians
.- L.f

s
are enclosed in brackets. If feasible first name, rank or title~

al:e also pl.'ovided, Any additions, deletions and changes subsequently made to the transcript by the interviewee al"e not il-ldicared, Researchers may wish to listen to the actual il-~t-efvJ~w
tape p~'ior to citing the transcript,

SDMMARY OF CONTENTS

Ill this oral history interview Mr. William Paul Bridges
r.e¢ount~ t~laF~y of his early experieTices and feelings
prior

to

and

during

his

service

at

Civil Air

Patrol

Coastal Patrol Base 16 in Manteo, North Carolina.

He covers many aspects of the opening of the base at the
Skyc.oe Airport and its later move to the Manteo Airport.
A d d i t i o n a l l y, h e c a n d i d l y e x p r e s s e s ] ] i s v i e w a s r e l a t e s
to tile base's first corr~alander, Jim Hamilton, and its
ultimate col~nandez', Allen Watkins.

His t.al¢ of t.h¢ Io,~, and subsequent search for fellow
aircrew-men Coo]< and Cooper provides

detai led

information on their tragic loss in December of 1942.

F i n a l l y, h i s s u r m n a r y o f t h e o v e r a l l w o r t h o f t h e B a s e 1 6
operations provides an unusual insight into the feelings
of others as regards World War If,

GUIDE TO CONTENTS

Page

Sub3ect

1

Personal Background

1

E a r l y A v i a t o r Te d M a l l o v

2

First Flying

3

Joins Civil h~r Patrol

5

Mov~ to Base 16

5

Reportlng to Skycoe Air'port

7

Bas~ Cou-~nander Jim Hamilton

7

C h a n g e o f C o ~ Y ~ n a n d f r o m H a m i l t o n t o A l l e r ~ w a r. k i l l , 9
C

7

Building the Base at Manteo Airport

8

Submarine Slghti[ig
Flying Procedures

I 0

Canad]a[~ Pilot

i i

Fuel Problems

i i

Loss of Cook and Cooper

15

Submarine Sighting

16

Dispute with Base Commander

i_S

Flying Routine

18

Arming Aircraft

19

Dr. Hutton

21

C . Y. N a n n y

22

Living Accor~rlodatlons

24

Blackout Driving

24

Move to Manteo Airport

27

Base Supplies

29

Overall Evaluation

:30

Lack of Base Insignia

C I V I L A I R PAT R O L O R A L H I S T O R Y L N T F. R V I E W
WNHC 26.832-14
William Paul Brldges
i0 October 1983
Manteo, North Carolina
Lt. Col. Lester E. Hopper, CAP

N umb e _r-

Taped ntervaew with:
Date of Interview:
Locat i on :
Conducted by:

H,

Paul, and I hope you don't mind if I cont. inue calling you

that, why don't you start off with a little bit of backgrouF~d
about Paul Bridges, where you were born, family traditions or
anything

that

you

feel

like

telling

us

about

yourself

as

an

individual.
B:

We l l , I w a s b o r n N o v e m b e r i i , 1 9 0 9 , i n C l e v e l a n d C o u n t y,

N o r t l ~ C a r o l i n a , n e a r S h e l b y. I w a s b o r n o n a f a r m .

My father

was a farmer, and he had a small gr-ocery st ore out ~n the coucht r y, a n d I w a s j u s t r a l s e d u p a s a p o o r c o u l ] t ~ " y b o y

1 r.emembel

very well, I split stove wood and carried It no colored town and
sold it. We lived about slx miles out of town. Back ill tl]ose
days I went ~o church a million times with my overalls on, my bib
overalls, we dressed like that back in those days.

The first

airplaF~e I ever" seen, I guess, my father had went to Shelby in
his wagon, with mules, and he found out that the airplane was
carrying in t.o town, and he sen~ word or came back and got me. and
I remember standing and looking up to see the airplane comlr~g 312.
t

i thought it. was the gr.eatest, thing in the woYld I ever seen.
must have been, oh, I wasn't even in my teens, I was below
teenage, at that time. The first time I r, emember, I flew in

my
an

old Ford Tri-Motor,.

ti~

B;

De} you }~,]ow what }{ind of airplane it. was, that you saw litst.?

N t , , I d o n - t . Y e m e m b e l ~ t h a t , W e l l . I d o i . - . e m e m b e Y. 2 1 , ~ , , e e i ~ e d
h~m,
t don't know whether you ve ever heard o~
l i k e Te < t M a l l o y
l~rst
used to carry mail, He was one of the
b u t Te d M a l l o y
I
D i l o t ~ t h a t e v e r c a r r i e d t h e m a l l f r o m A t l a n t a t o N e w Yo r k ,

Bridge~:
believe that's right, and he come t.o our [own one time and flew
i~assengei-"s.

Of ,::oui.'se, I didn't have the money to take a ride
.~ - . -

wit.h him, but I wat~..ll~:t hie airplane while he went. in for lun,::h
t h a t , fl a y, a n d I t l l o u g h t I w a s - a p r e t t y b i g S h o t , l o o k i n g a f t e r
the man's airplane. But there was a boy from our town, D, L,
W i l l i s , h e fi n a l l y w e n t t o G e r m a n y, w h e n t h e y fl i g h t l i f t e d o v e r
there, he flew over t.her:e, he flew in the war, he was, well.
w a s j u s t a s e l f - - m a d e p i l o t : a n d h e l e a r n e d m e t o fl y, r e a l l y.
didn't even have an instructor's rating or anything, learned

H:

to

First flight was in an old Ford Tri-Motor.

H:

He

Yo u r fi r. s t fl i g i l t w a s i n a n o l d F o r d Tr i - M o t o r ?

B:

fie

Was that at a fair" or something like that?

B:

No, thei"e was a little landing strip there at my home town,

arld this boy D. L. Willls, some of the boys where they had the
landing strip out there, they'd brought this plane in there, and
that's wl]ere it was, it was on this little landing strip there
where I flew. And then they had a flying club. They bought a
Piper C.ub, and ]lad members, you paid them so much, you know, so
much a rnonth and then so much for your flying time when you flew.
a n d t h a t w a s h o w I l e a r n e d t o fl y.

H:

When was that, Paul?

B : W h e n w a s t h a t ' ? ~ e a l l y, I d o n ' t k n o w, i t w a s , I d s a y i n t h e
late thirties, because I'd been flying several years when '42-w h e n I c o m e d o w n h e r e i n t i l e w a r. S o I j u s t l o v e t o fl y, a n d o f
course I joined Civil Air Patrol wl]en they organized tlle Civil

A l l ' : P a t r o l t . ] i e l ' " ~ . 111 , f f , b e l b y, a n d I w e n t . t o t l l a L . A n d m y w i l e . I
remember my childt'"en was all little, and in fact, this boy that',~
(tOWli here, he fr~lgl-~t not have been born yet.. And ]; remember she
wanted to know when I signed up to come on anti-submarine patrol,

she says: What. are you going.clown there [oz? ~;aid yoLt ve got a
family l]el~e and these kids, and I said: Well, I don't mean for
them so-and-sos to come over here, and that's exactly how I felt..
about the war at that time. But I guess, as everybody else does,
that's ever been in any kind of service, I don't ]<now, that's the
only servlce I was ever in. except I was in the National Guard
some thei"e, when I got into it and seen some of' the things that
happei-~ed ]n It, sometimes i was a l]tl:le d~sei/)po]nted, wh,ci~ [
guess we al I are.

H:

L e t ' s g o b a c . k a l i t t l e ] . ) i t . Yo u w e r e i n t h e N a t i o r, a l

Guard

before you joined CAP?

]9:

,Just for a short tirne.

H:

) "
T h a t w a s i n S h e l L- y , ]

B:

T h a t w a s i n S h e l b y.

T h a t w a s w h a t , a n i n f a n t r y o u t fi t io r s o m e t h i n g ?

B:

Ye s . S o , w e c o m e d o w n h e r e o n a n t i - s u b m a r i n e - -

H : Yo u j o i n e d C A P, t h e n , w h a t , r i g h t a w a y i n D e c e m b e r o f ' 4 1
something like that'?

B: No, I belonged to CAP probably a year--I don't know--whenever
it

first

started.

H~

That's when it. first, started.

B:

When it first started.

H~

Do you fecal l your serzal number, by any chance?

B:

N o , s i r. Yo u ' v e g o t i t , b u t I d o n ' t r e c d l l .

Bridges
H:

B:

I ve got !t, because that tells you how early you 3oinect.

Ye s .

I was in on the first. So, I fell in love wlt]J the

island down here, and I fell in love with the base, as far as
that's

concerned.

There's

some

of

the

things

that

didn't

go

right. I could go into them, but I don't think, maybe, you'd want
5o hear some of the th~ngs I might say about that.

H:
the

B:

When you're studying history you've got, to study the good ar~(t
bad both.

Well, me and the co~m~anding officer didn't get along too

w e l l , r e a l l y. M r. A l l e n Wa t k i n s , o f c o u r s e h e ' s a g o o d f r i e n d o f
mlne now, and the last reunion we had we, I think we cured some
old sores that we had betwixt us, maybe, but I left the base,
That's one of the reasons I left the base before it did close
out.

But I noticed a lot of the people, I really made a lot o~

frlends on the base, and I still th~nk a lot of them. In fact i[
love people, and it was a good lesson to me. In fact, i didnt
go into my educational background, I only have a eighth grade
education. I quit school. I got girls in my head, when I got up
big enough when I was going to school, and I got married real
young, and when they got to talking about public ~.elations officers and all that kind of stuff, I really didn't ]<now what they
was talking about. I didn't have hardly enougl] educatlon to know
what public rela[]ons meant, but I found out a lot too.

R e a l l y,

I got an education in tile Civil Air" Patrol. Of course, we get a
education in life., you know that's the best education we get
sometimes I think. ~nd I fell in love with the island down here,
and of course bough% some property down here, and you see I'm
d o w n h e r e t o d a y. I , l o v e i t d o w n h e r e . I l o v e t l ] e i s l a n d , I l o v e
[,he people on the island. Really, I believe I've got some as
good friends or better down here than I have bac]~ ]n my own l]ome
<own. In fact. I know a lot mox'e of them. Of course a Io[ o~ the
p e o p l e n o w a t m y a g e t h a t I k n e w a ~ ] d w e Y. e g o o d f Y i e y L d D o f r e ! l i t
have passed on.

/82 ] (tcje, s
H: Well, now you say you came dowl] here.

When dld you corfle down

here, Paul?

July 1942.

B:

H: How about tel llng me--what was your first thought, When you
first walked in and saw CAP Coastal Patrol 16. What did you see?

B~ Well, E.here wasn't much base to it at that time, It was the
south end of the island. It was a little strip down there, and I
r'emem~er well, when we come in and we operated ot£ of a private
home out there. That was our operations office out there.

And

we con,e in, had to come in off of the end of a bunch of wlres,
fly in off of a punch of wires arid land on thls llttle strip <towz]
there. Mosquitoes--

Did that stFip have a name?

H:

B: Skycoe.
,gkycoe?

H:

B~

8kycoe.

[)ave Dricoll and some other people had flew down

here, arld that was the little strip that. they had used t.o fly
f Y. o l ] i d o w l - , h e r e .

H:

How do you spell that?
-

-,

J

-~

g (" ,-

: ~ - - , ~ - - I d o n t . ] < n o l w. S - Y- C - . )

H:

( ) k a y, S y c o .

H:

That was a grass strip.

Ye s . a n d t h e m o s q u i t o e s w e r e s o b a d o u t t h e r e , b e l i e v e i t o F
Ive seen them in daylight, they'd just light on people.
dawn
cover them up like mats, and when you'd go out on

llOt,
just
patrol

in the mornlng, you'd have to take a map or some of

your

papers

to keep them out of your eyes. there was so many of

them

down tl]ere. And I've always been right much mechanically mznded,
and I helped service the airplanes some out there. We'd bt,ly th~
n]osqu]~.o stuff Dy tlne barFe], fifty-five gallon bar'refs, and
while one of the men was working on the airplanes, another Olle
w o u l d b e b a c k w i t h a h a n d s p r a y, s p r a y i n g h i m t o k e e p t h e m o s q u i toes from eating him up. That don't sound reasonable, but tl]at's
a fact. And that grass was up pretty high, you know, and when
you're stirring that grass with the mosquitoes, that just made
them swarm that mucl] worse.

H : { ) k a y, n o w d i d y o u b r i n g a n a i r p l a n e d o w ; ~ h e Ye w : ~ t h y o u o r d i d
you--what did you fly?

.B: I flew a Stinson 105 down here. It wasn't my plane. However,
l had a Fairchild 24. bough5 a Fairchild 24 and brought it. dowrt
l]eFe two or three months later' after I come down here, but I flew
a Stinson 105 clown here. We'd fly in pairs--of course you know
al ] about that, I guess--

B:

Yo u d o n ' t ] < n o w h o w t . h e b a s e o p e r a t e d o r a n y t h i n g ' ?

H:

No. That's what I want to know.

II

I want to hear your" version

of how everything worked.

£ ~ W e l l , t o s t a r t w i t h , t h e b a s e o p e n e d U P, w e h a d a N a v y m a n
l:.t]at was con~narictilig officer of tile ba,,~e, ,.]itn ~l,:tiu:iil.oli .....

fl~

Well, that's after you moved up to the other end, but, down--

Bridges
B:

No. That was at Skycoe, when it first opened ug.

He's

the m a n t h a t l e f t t h e b a s e .

H:

His name was what?

B: Jim Hamilton, He was a very good friend of mine, I knew him
before tl]at, but he was pretty strict, he was pretr, y strict, allt]
l]e'd line us up just like they do in the regular Army and all
that stuff.

He d give us shoulder" arms inspections, or they

started out like that, and the only thing, he argued wit]] them in
Washington, I understand, but he didn't like the red shoulder
loops we had to wear. Back in those days, you know, the differe n c e b e t w i x t t h e r e g u l a r A r m y a n d t h e C A P, w e w o r e t h e r e d s h o u l der straps on our shoulders, and he didn't like that, and he kept
arguing with them ~n Washington. and they tell me <hat that's one
of

the

reasons

that

he

lost

his

job.

But Allen

Watklns

from

Greensboro was the operations officer at that time, so he too]<
the base over and managed the base after Mr. Hamilton left here,
Jim Hamllton. He was the coma~anding officer. At that time the
N a v y, t h e y h a d t h e r u n w a y s b u i l t u p h e r e , o r I t h i n k t h e y w a s
building them or having them built, They was cutting the timber"
off of it, and there was an old CC camp betwixt here and the town
of Manteo.
We'~'e on the north end of the islancl, where we re
having this inve~-view now, and betwixt here and town tl~er'e wds an
old CC camp down there witI] a savm,ill on it, so they had tile old
trucks down there and a] i, and we took the trucks, and we took
chain saws and went over and got this lumber, too]< it down to the
sawrnlll, sawed tllis lumber and built our own operational office
building up here on t'he Navy base, where we moved to.

H~

HOW long did you stay down at Skycoe?

B : W e w a s a t S k y c o e , I ' d s a y, w e l l , w e c o m e u p h e l - e ~ " i g ] t ~ - a D O t t t
t h e fi r s t o f D e c e m b e r, I ' d s a y. I t h a d n t b e e n t o o l o n g . We w a s
down there two or" three months, and then we got our operations
otfices built, up ]]ere and come up 1]ere.

]h" idges

H:

Down there, what did you all do?

B:

Did you fly your patrols?

Ye ~ , s i r. W e s t a r t e d - -

H:

Te l l m e a b o u t y o u r d a w n p a t r o l , a s a n e x a m p l e , d o w n a t

coe,

B~

Well, I'd say we started flying within a week or ten days

after we come down here ix] '42. We flew in pairs. George Washone
burn, Lt. George Washburn and myself, we was partners in
airplane, and then tl]ere'd be, you know, he was my partner'

all

[.he time most, we roae together'. And then the other plane,

and

we'd fly together, and when we'd want to mako a turn, or

see

,~omething. now we started flying like this--we changed it later-if we'd see something on the water, 'cause the man from Wasl]ingout
t.on come ¢lown here and told us, he says: Boys, you're going
there, you're going to see schools of fish, you're going to

see

w a k e s l i c k s a n e y o u m i g h t s e e a s u b m a r i n e . Yo u ' r e g o i n g t o

see

all these things, so just don't get excited. He didn't tell

us

that we didn't have nothing to do nothing with, but he'd just

as

well.

It wasn't much use to report it, because there wasn't.

nothlng nobody couid do about it, I don't think at that time.
But anyhow, later, we got bombs on the airplanes. So, we'd go
out, tl]ere, al]d Jf somebody'd see the buoy or see somet:hlng and
we'd want to turn, why we'd signal and the other ship would
follow.

On the second patrol, I guess. I was ever on, I had a

chronograph on, and I saw something on the water myself.

So I

punched my watch and 'made a signal to the other ship and made the
turn and my observer, ,George Washburn, he said: What do you see,
the

buoy?

I

said:

No,

that

ain't

no

buoy. And

all

I

can

tell

you, it was something on the water, black, big, i mean just see
~2~omething on the wafer, But we was six mJnut.e.e~ from it, flying
approximately 90 miles an hour, which would have made th~ obj¢o'%
l ] l i n e m i l e m a w a y. We w a s n ' t e x c i t e d , We d i d n ' t e v e n r e p o r t i t ,
'til we come in back to the base. But I noticed on the. reports,

ishey've got it marked as tl~e first submarir, e spotted,

H: Now flow would you have reported it? Did you have a radio out
there?

B:

Oh, yes. We had a two-way radio.

H:

How gcod were your radios?

B:

Well, l'd say they was fair. They wasn t like what we have

t o d a y.

But, I had never used a radio. For some reason, I've

always been a little afraid of a radio--co talk on the radio. I
have a radio on my boat, where I can talk to the Coast Guard or
what have you, but I'm always a little hesitant, about it, and I
think there was a io[ of the boys, may]De, that had rlever used a
i"ad]o, and that makes a whole lot of difference. I don't know
whether other people are like that or not, but, you know, just
t a l k i n g i n t o a m i c r o p h o n e i s 3 u s t a l i t t l e b i t f u n n y, w h e n y o u ' r e
not used to it. But anyhow, that's about all I can say about
that t ime.
. (

H ; O k a y. N o w, d i d y o u j u s t t a k e o ff f r o m S k y c 3 e a n d g o o u t a n d
h u n t i t ] a n a r e a , o r w e r e y o u f o l l o w i n g a c o n v o y, o Y w h a t w e r e y o L t
doin[?

B; Well, we'd usually pretty well draw out our map to buoys,
where we was going, from this buoy ~o that buoy to the other
b u o y, y o u s e e . A n d I r e m e m b e r w e l l o n e d a y o u r s i s t e r s h ~ p w a s
wit]] us. There was a buoy off of Oregon Inlet down here and then
[.]]el"e was another buoy off shore, and we picked up th~s buoy off
shore and I told the observer, I says he thinks t l]at's tha[. buoy
a[. Ol"egon Inlet. i says he don't know where he's ~t now. We
followed l]lm fO~~ thircy rn]rtutes gointl to sea, al-J<~ I si(jn~led aLJd
then we turned, and we flew I think it was fourteen minutes
before we hit a buoy that's fourteen miles off shore off of Nag's
Head, up here. So, I don't know what, ~f we'd have .just kept

B]"idges
going, I reckon, but 5hat's how easily you can get 10st out there
it's
oil wafer, We was all sort of green pilots, back then, and
just like the boy that came down here with me, he just

died

i ' - e c e n t l y, a b o u t a y e a r a g o , a n d h e w a s a b u s d r i v e r ' , a r i d h e

told

rne every little town and every little bend Jn the i.-oad

f~'<,l~)

¢ . h a Y. l o t t . e a l l t h e w a y d o w n h e r e . I s a i d : L i s t e r , , w i ] e r e y o u ' r e
going you ain't going to see these here marks like you're seeir~g
r~ow

Yo u ' v e g o t t o l e a r n t o w a t c h t h a t c o m p a s s , a n d fl y t h a t

c o m p a s s a n d y o u r w a t c h a n d y o u h a d . Yo u ' d b e t t e r l e a r n

I

havent got a instrument rattng or" anything like that. but I know
that you've got to fly your watch and your compass, and wl]eF~ yOL~
start

on

it

you'd

better

believe

in

it,

if

you

dont

you

ain't

coming back from out there, maybe.

H:

Now you say you laid ou5 your course.

o c e a n d i d y o u fl y, P a u l ?

B : We l l . w e fl e w a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 0 o r 2 5 m i l e s , I ' d s a y. We fl e w
out to the shipping lanes. Because, I wasn't in thls flight, I
C[on't ]<now~ Is i1 all right t.o tell something about one of the
pilots?

1~: We had a ,nan down here--I think he's passed away maybe now--@eorge Hatch, he's a Canadian. He come down here from Canada,
and he was a pilot, and he took his observer out in a well, and
they flew down on a.ship out there one day in the shipping lanes,
and his observer to'Id me, he said: Lister]. them fellows down
there on than ship, they was battling them guns. So you'd go out
there flying over a ship, they don't k~~ow who you are, they'~'~e
liable to shoot you down out there, you see. So there s a lot oI
thing,~ like that happened down here, not a whole lot, but some,
I k n o w t h e e n g i n e e r i n g o f fi c e r v e r y w e l l , l i e u s e d t o % e 11 h l e ,
l]e'd say you fellows that's got a family flying out zhere in the
o c e a n , y o u ' r e j u s t c r a z y. We g o t s o m e t h l n g ] n o u r g a s o l i n e d O Wr l

Brldges

h e r e .

I t

filter,

you

we

took

a l ~ d

w a s

a

b r o w n

know

we

off. And

t h a t

I

l o o k i n g

went

to

cleaning

remember

t h J . l ~ g ,

I t

a l l

s u b s t a n c e

one

b u t

the

day

q u i t

a n d

filters

the

o n

i t

s t o p p e d
every

plane

~ ~ e

that

a b o u t

u p

day
I

Delete

was

e i g h t

t i l e

flylng

m i l e s

o ff

shore. Well, I signaled my other ship and I started pull'l|]]l]g the
pump over Ol-~ l:]ie side a~]d it cougl]ed a few clmes and caught up
a n t ]

i

w e n t

e l l

fl y i n g

m y

p d t r o l s ,

a n d

a f t e r

a

l i t t l e

l ] i ~

t h a t

thing done the same thing again, so I decided we Petter come in.
A n d

w e

g o t

i n ,

i

w a s

a f r a i d

I

w a s n ' t

g o i n g

t o

g e t

a c r o s s

t h e

sound, but, we got ill and I come in to the airport out here with a
dead suick. And I never will forget, Captain Watkins had come Lip
h e r e ,

h e ' d

o f fi c e ,

t o o k

a n d

h e

o v e r

t h e

s a i d :

b a s e

L i s t e n ,

t h e n ,

P a u l .

a n d

h e

d o n ' t

c a l l e d

g o

o u t

i n

m e

talking

t h e r e

there's

about that. motor qultting on you the way it did, he says
some

of

h e l " e
y o u

these

n o w.

I

d o n ' t

scary,

s a i d

b e

when

boys

down

w e l l

t a l k i n g

you

think

i t

here

that's

d o e s n ' t

a b o u t

b o t h e r

t h a t

about

it

about

ready

m e .

H e

b e c a u s e - - i t

when

you

sit

to

leave

s a i d ,
w a s

down

i

a

and

h i s

dowl]

] < n o w,

l i t t l e
talk

b i t

about

zt. Because we did, we lest these Cook and Cooper and it was in
December' just before Christmas.

Okay, were you flying off of Skycoe then?

H:

B ~

N o ,

w e

w a s

fl y i n g

o ff

o f

u p

h e r e

t h e n ,

O f

c o u r s e ,

I

p r e t t y

we tl know wl~at lqagpened to the man, Mr. Cooper. I was lucky.

I

had read an Air Facts magazine, not too long about that, about
c a r b u r e t o r

i c i n g .

T h e r e

didn't

k n o w

pulled

y o u r

c a r b u r e ' t e r

icing,

B u t .

i f

conditions

a b o u t

in

y o u

the

s

a

l o t

c a r b u r e t o r
h e a t

p u l l e d

throat

of

i t

o f

p e o p l e

i c i n g ,

o n
o n

t h a t
j u s t

that

a n d
y o u

b a c k

t h e y
w a s

e n o u g h

carburetor,

i n

t h o s e

t h o u g h t

k e e p i n g

t o

c r e a t e

that's

when

i t

d a y s

i f

y o u

f r o m

f r e e z i n g
your

ice

~tal'"ted sticklng, you see. And he'd keep messing with the l~eat.
I

told

w a y

o n

[]im

one

l i k e

t h e

day,

I

said:

o u t s i d e

o r

Mr.

Cooper, pull that thing all tl-Le

p u s h

i t

o ff .

D o n

t

l e a v e

i t

p u l l e d

] n

part way, and he's the man that was flying the shlp and Cook was
the observer when they went down just before Christmas., when we

~ridges
lost these two fellows-, and that was one of the col~est, rainiest, windies¢ nights-'windy like it :s now, but in December it
was cold, you ]:now, and they never did, I don't believe, it's in
the records I think, but I think they found Cooper"s life 3acket
back up in one of these creeks. I don't tl:ink they ever did f:rtd
Cooks, or find anything of his.

H:

Did you all put up a pretty gooe search or something wlten

they

got. lost? When did they go down, do you recall?

B:

Ye s , s i r. We l l , I d o n ' t b e l i e v e I o u g h t t o t e l l

exactly what happened.
We'll edit it out of the tape, if you

don't

like

B: tt,'s a pretty bad lick on the con~nanding offJ, cer.

H:

Well, I'm not going to tell him,

He had an old two wing airplane, I forget what it was, and he
He
went out there by himself, after they reported lie was down.
didll"t call the Navy on the other side of the field. These

boys

o u t t h e r e i n t h e w a t e r, R o n D e s t o r y, h e w a s o n e o f t h e b o y s

that

knew
w~,_ the observer over them, and he seer] them in the water,
was there, seen them, stayed wltl] them until it got nearly
they
dark.
t

H:

Story was flying in the secor'.d airplane?

B : Ye s , s i r. A n d t h e y s t a y e d w i t h t h e m u n t i l h e r u n o u t o f g a s
a~]d had to land on the beach. The Coast Guard, their boat down
t here
(~u.....
_ ~:d

wa,.°, inland or ~ometh.ing and ::hey cot~Idr~'t, get tl~e ('.oa,?.,t
out t.her, it was pretty rough I was on the dawn patrol
e

the next morning when we searched for' them. We give a good
search for them the next morning. We covered everything we had

t o fl y b y. We w e n t ~ n p a i r s a n d w e c o v e r e d i t . B u t Wa t k i n s , h e
went ou[ tl]e~'e over them in his ship before he come back and sent
anybody else out there, flew around over them and seen them out
t h e r e . Yo u k n o w t h a t w a s n ' t h e l p i n g t h e m a n y.

H:

How far off sllore were they?

B : T h e y w a s o ff s h o r e - - w e l l , I d o n ' t k n o w, r e a l l y, I ' d s a y t h e y
was off shore four or five miles, somewheres in that l]eighborl]ood
off

of

the

beach. That

aint

far

out

there.

I've

had

a

lot

of

new men would come down here and I don't know, for some reason
they d send them out there with me a good bit of the time for
their first flight, and we'd go off shore on patrol and come back
And
irJ and I'd say: How far do you think it is to the beach?
I d .just drop the

sub-

3act and forget dbout it. About ten minutes l. ater Id say:

How

they'd say: Oh. it's about rive miles

far did you say it was to the beach? And that just give them at]
] d e a w h a t y o u w a s l o o k i n g a t . Yo u g e t u p a c o u p l e o f t h o u s a n d
f e e t a n d a s a n d b e a c h u p t h e r e , i t m a k e s a p r e t t y g o o d m a r ] < . Yo u
c a n s e e i t a l o n g w a y s o n a p r e t t y d a y, y o u k n o w.
H:

O k a y, y o u s a y Wa t k i n s w e n t o u t t h e r e a n d h e c l r c l e d

t.h~r~~ What. was t.ha~., getting toward dark, or something?

B:

Ye s .

th]l]k

he

Dark was coming on and he was ou[ there flylng.
dropped

a

couple

of

flares

or

something

out

of

I
his

personal airplane. It wasn't a plane--I don't think--maybe it
w a s a s s i g n e d t o t h e b D, s e .
a
H: But you couldn't get any help from the Coast Guard to get out
there and get them or anything?

~i }'~o, t:.]1~ Coati. {~tlal'*d wa~--what. [.hey said that t.t-~eir main boat.,
the ship tl~ey go out and rescue them with out in the ocean, and
they said them fellows down there at the Coast Guard, they
throwed one of their boats, they said they'd throw it otlt on that

Bridges
beach, and it would throw it right back at them, that's how rough
J[. was at. t.hat t.]me, But their main big boat wash t down there
at tl]at time, that's what I've understood, Now that could not be
at~thentic.
and it

was

I'm not sure about that, but I know we lost two men
just

a s a d s t o r y. O n e o f t h e g i r l s t h a t w o r k s ~ n t h e

offi<:e whel] we was down here at the reunion, she w~s talking
about

that and she feels just like I do about it, she wol"ked

l-Jght

in thel"e and knows what happened, A1 Alston knows all

about

what happened, because ho was in operations. But some of

them might not tell you that.

H: Well, you know, that's a decision that the man made. It may
haw been a good one oi-" it may have been a bad one. It's Monday
morn i ng.

] ~ , , We l l , 3 u s t l i k e I s a y, l ' m a g o o d f r i e n d o f h i s , a n d w e m a d e
up some, He knew I was talking about him before I left the base,
I w a s r e a l l y d o w n o n t 11 e m a n f o r a w h i l e , b u t y o u h a v e t o f o r g i v e
and forget and allow a lot, because we are all human beings ariel
we all make a lot of mistakes in life, you know.

H : Te l l m e a l i t t l e b i t m o r e a b o u t y o u r n o r m a l fl y i n g . I

gather

you didn't pick up and convoy ships, then. Did you fly

around

the convoys, or what?

B:

Ye s . T h a t ' s w h a t h a p p e n e d l a t e r. I n t h e b e g i n n i n g w e

went

just

out there looking for whatever we could find.

H: That first submar'ine you think you spotted, what was that
November? September?.

B:

No, that was ~n July or the litst of August.

second patrol I was ever on.

H:

Real early then.

B~ idges
B:

Ye s , b e c a u s e t h a t ' s w h e n t h e y w a s r e a l l y d o w n " h e r e .

See,

later ill the game tl]ey left, we didn't see any submarines.

We

did,] t see any oil slicks. Now see, I'd done left the base at.
tl]is time, but 3ust before the base quit patrol]r,g out here. they
saw a submarine out there, and saw it go ~z[own--sat tne}-e and
watched it.. They thought it was a fishing ]]oat ~,o sliar-t wit.h,
Then tl]ey saw the subrnarine go down oft shape, They come ).)ac]<.
a~'~d the boy that was the observer in there told me, he said:

I

w a s s i t t i n g t h e r e l o o k i n g r i g h t a t i t a [ x d I t l ] o u g h t , i F. w 6 ~ f f 6 ~
fishing boat until it started going under the water.

It was

surfaced. But I didn t see that.
What did you do'?

H--

'Fell me about one of t]~ose convoy patrols.

Yo u

picked it up at a point?

B:

They started the convoy patrols after I left the base.

H:

O k a y. ~ e n d i d y o u l e a v e t h e b a s e , b y t h e w a y, P a u l ?

B:

I n J a n u a r y.

H.'

Well, you flew an awful lot then, those first six months,

because, you know, you got the Air Medal.
B:

Ye s , I fl e w a g o o d m a n y h o u r s . W i ~ a t h a p p e n e d , o n e o f t h e

reasons I left the base, I went in and asked Capt. Watkins, I
believe he was a captain at that time, lie got to be a major, I
think, but anyhow, I told him that I was in business, automobile
[:,art.s business back flame, and I needed to go home to get my tax
off tl]e first of the.year There was a lot of these boys do~r~
hol"e--I had my wife and my family was down here with me. ar)d I
says now I'll fly during the holidays and all, but the first of
t.he yea1" I nee(t a week off to go home and get my taxes and all In
m y b u s i n e s s s t r a i g h t e n e d o u t . S o I w e n t , w a i t e d o n e S a t u r d a y.
Ther.e was a fellow, Carl Mercer, was going to Rocky Mount, and
flew with him to Rocky Mount and then rode the ]]us on in. Bu< he

Bridges
give me my pass ~o go home, and I never looked at the pass, al]d
he give it to me for three days, and I thought it was a week.
But I got to Rocky Mount. and went in Carl Merc:ei" s l]otel roori~ ai]~-[
happet]ed to look at tl~at pass and it was ]ust for th~-ee days.
We l l , I w e n t r i g h t o n h o m e t o S h e l b y, a n d I c a l l e d C o l o n e l F r a l - J <
Dawson, and I said what carl he do with me if I don't go back.

l

asked him for a week. I've got to get my tax off. He said

he

can't, do nothing. I come back. Captain Watkins went up ~[n

the

same alrplane that I was talking about and he'd put on a show,
th~s
He liked to put on a show for" these fellows. But he said
before he went up, he said, Paul, I want to see you when I

come

]_-~a.ck. I says all right, sir. So when he come back down, I

went

in his office, and I said now you wanr~ me to talk to yoLi as
of~lcer to office~ or man to man. He sa-id man to m~n. i said i
got a Day crown here that's twelve years old, an~1 if lie can't run
< . h i s b a s e b e t t e r t h a n y o u d o I ' d b e a t h i s f a n n y. T h a t ' s w h a t I
told him. And that's one of the reasons, I says I want my ~"elease ~r'om this base. Can I get it? He says you can but he
still made me stay right :'here until the twenty-seventh of Oal]tta r y, a n d t h a t w a s r i g h t a f t e r C h r i s t ~ l a s .

H.

B:

Well, you flew during that period of time, tl~ough?

I'm not sure whether I did or" not. I think I did, but I'm

n o t s u r e . A l i t r. l e b i t m o r e o f t h a t s t o r y. M a y b e I o u g h t n t t o
tell you all this, but its facts.
H:

Facts is what w~ are after.

B:

As I was golng home, and I wel~t out there in full dress un~full dress
~orm to the base, which we didn't go out there in
S h e l b y. H e
unifor.m when we was flying, but I was going back to
made me stay there on that base and wouldn't let me

and MeFc.er

bake off in the airplane to go to Rocky Mount until four o clock,
and f was out there from lunch time on, when I co~]Id have wel]t.
from lunch time on. I mean it didn't make that much diffc;rence.

I wash t going to <to arly£hing out there, but he was 3ust the type
rrtarl that-- Well. uo show you the type corf~n~ndez he was, the Navy
was

on

the

otheF

sJcte

o~

the

field

ove:

L l ~ e Ye

and

theyc[

90<

basebal i teams, boIzh Civ] ] Air Patrol and the N~ivy oyez theze,
~ n ¢ [ t l ] e y w a s g o ] r l g t o n a v e a b a ] i g a m e . Yo u k ~ ~ o w w h a t l - ~ e < I . o i ~ . /
He cai]ed the Navy and said is officers going to play of£icer's or
W h o

i s

g o i n g

t O

p l a y.

A n d

t h e y

s a i d

w e

d o n ' <

c a r e

w h o

i t

i s ,

whet.heF it 8 erilisted men or' offJcez's or' what, all we want is a
b a l l

g a m e .

B u t

h e

w a n t e d

t o

b e ,

I

g u e s s

y o u ' d

s a y,

a

l i t t l e

t o o

str.ict for the book.

Did ho hdve som~: klrict o~: m.[]itary ].,ackozouno o:r ,.~nyt.l~ll~g?

J-l:

B: .[ ¢lOll't tliillk so. I GOI]'L kl]oW. ]~ ,:[oI~ t: ]:,eliev~;-- lie mazi-ied
ol]e o.f the Adams girls up theFe j.n Greensboro, alJd theys prett:y
w e l l - t o - d o
l v e

m a c [ e

w~y

p e o p l e .
f F i e n d s

I

t h i n k .

w i t h

C o u r s e

h i m ,

a n d

I

A l l e n ,

h a ' s ,

w a s n ' t

m a d

] u s t
a t

h i m

l i k e

I

t h e n ,

B a y,
i n

a

But you can undeFst.ar~d how, if you got that kind of tFeat-

l]]el]<, soft. of how youd fee].

H : Te t ; . m e - - [ ' ] [ a p e C h a n g e ) .

~ Le.t's see, where were we?

H:

9;

Yo u

were

talking

about

how

many

tlm.~ a day you flew,
: e~

Oh, yes, Somet, imes we'd make two patrols a day. I believe

most of the t irne now, just l~ke the time w]lel-i some of the boys
went. home for the holidays at Christll]as, that d:id.n'L have t.lle.lr
f a m i l y d o w n h e £ e , w e l d fl y, I } - l a v e J ~ l ~ . w, [ t . ] l J l ] K a s m l . t c l - i , : ~ s , , l i i x
]]OLtY'S a (:lay OUL t.here, We'd have about tlwec houi" pati-c,l.~, df]d 1
have flew as much as six houFs a day out. the£e,

H:

What did you flY raostty down he£e?

Mostly

it

was

Stirlson

105's.

Ti~ey

h~d

two

twen.ty gallon

Bridges
tanks, one on each wing. They was pretty slow, but whatever else
flew down here, we had a Waco and a big Stinson, a gull- wing,
and, I don't know, one or two Fairchilds, but we all had to ~say
with tF~e St insons, you know, you l]ad to sort of stay togetl]er
when they flew out there., The biggest part of the thiiig is we
flew is StJrlsor]s, Ius'S,

H:

Wlien t.hey armed the airplanes, were you here when

they put

the bombs on?

B: I believe I was here, but I never flew one wit}] a bomb on it.
They done that just. about the first of '43, about the tlm~ time I
ieft down here.

H:

W e l l y o u fl e w s o m e < i m e s s i x h o u r s a d a y.

B: Some days, nos-- Usually one patrol a day was as much as we'd
flare, As well as I remember it was about a three houF patrol.

H:

Was that seven days a week, five days a week?

B' Well, no i guess five days a weeX--six clays a weeK, ! guess.
We l l . I b e l i e v e w e d i d fl y m a y b e o n S u n d a y, t o o . ] ) L i t n o w i ' I ~ I n o t
, ~ L t r ' e a b o u t t h a t , I k n o w o n e t i m e . I r e m e m b e r w e l l t h e d a y, a n d I
think lve got some plc<ures of 1[. maybe in an old newspaper
clipping or something. When we come from Skycoe. when we was
flying down there, when we was sawing this lumber and moving over
F, e r e , a n d w e c o m e o v e r h e r e w o r k i n g o n t h e b a s e , b u i l d i n g t h e
]base and all, and o'~ course wed 3uBt. more or le,~s, maybe we
waslit active, but w,e was marching. Just I i]<e we was mal-C]l]l]g
w~th guns, but with shovels and working tools and stuff, bU, L
arJvhow we come over here and built our own base dug of the lumber
w e d s a w e d , y o u s e e , a n d t h a t w a s o n a S u n d a y, I r e m e m b e r t h a t
well. because there was a Dr. Hutton from Hickory was down here.
H e s a i d h e d i d n ' t w o r k f o r h i s s e l f o n S u n d a y, a n d h e w o u l d n ' t
come. Dut yet. he went home and polished his--or stayed down t|~ere

Br i dges
o n t h e fi e l d a n d p o l i s h e d h i s a i i " p l a n e , t h a t d a y,

t : n e ~ a m e , b u t . h e d i d n ' t ~ a n t t , : : , d o t h a t , y o u k n o w,

He wor.ked just
"]"h ~)[' <! ' 5;

pe(~i~le }ik~ t.l-Jat, [ l-~;~.<in't

L}louqht about him :n ye,~".~;,

/ ~ : o w w n e t h e r h e ' s t I v. i r J < i l o Y

,~.~ <.:,Ill<:

not,

i

d 0 h ' I.

1

H:

h:

W, ~ s h e a l : l i g h t s u r g e o n o n t h e b a s e ?
No, I]o. He wa~ just a doctor and he'd volurlteered

t.o come

down h e r e a n d w a s fl y i n g .

H:

H o w m a n y o t h e r p i l o t , ~ d i d t h e y h a v e d o w n h e r e , d o y o u Ye c a ] v

A Dunch? Twenty? Forty?

i ' d s a y t . h J r t . y, a n y h o w, I ' d s a y t h e r e w a s t h i r t y, a t l e a s t

H~

H o w m a n y a : [ r p l a n e s ; ' A b o u t t ] ~ a t n u m b e r, o r l e s s ?

B: No, there was less; airplanes than that. 1 dc, n't ])el;eve t!~ey
hao over twenty airplanes down l~er'e. I'm guessing, |low,
I could be off, but I'm gu.essing.

H'

Now you say you broughtyour own Waco down here later on.

Did you fly it ve~:y much'?

B "

Some, I flew it some, it, sat on the line for' the corr~aanding

Office1" to use it when he wanted, and me ~Iying one of the

Stin-

sons part of the time, which d]dn't look right to me, but

t h a t ' .~

t . . l ] e w a y i t w o r k e d . y o u k n o w. W h e n a m a n ' s t h e c o m n ~ a ~ - ~ d i n g
ce~', you ]]ave to do what he says to do,

off1-

Bridge~:
H:

Yo u s a y y o u r r a d i o s w e r e p r e t t y f a i r.

Do you remembe.l" what

kir~d they web"e, .Lear"~

B:

H:

No, I really don t. Just r'adios.

Now you say one tinle you think you spotted a submarine, orl

your second patrol. Did you spot any other things out t.here wh~!]
you were flying, Paul? Survivors?

B:

Oh yes.

There was one morning, I was on the ea~-'iy daw¢~

ai]ct t expeuc (.]]at

could have

base maybe n~ade ~ rnlstake.

We wa,~3 On

[)aEt"O.l ,

I)~Jen ~no<)lt-;~ l. Lille wJtell

t~ie

t h e d , ~ w, q [ ) c ~ t F o t 9 < . , J l ' l g s o u t h

Lowa1-'d Hatt.er'as, and iiot [too far fr-om

Oregon Inlet, which O~"egon

Inlet is only Lwelve or f]fLeen miles

down l]ere, wlaen we got: down

[to the ])each, we seen--we didn't know

what it w~s, it was tires,

iu was balls of stuff -lust strewn all along the beach. We made
i t
the patrol and we reporcect what we seen, probably reported
up

while we seen it. five gallon cans of gas, just throwed all

~:~

&hd dowl~ t.l-~e ])eac.l]. And we come back in and r-euorted it arid
we 1 1 as I rerriember iu

,

t O

o r

t h e

G o s s e

G u a r d ,

1- 'lfl riot. sure
I

Q O I q L

wli~t]leY

k [ i O W

x t.

the ))ritt_--f¢ r(~t)o!'"l;.~-d

w h a t

w a s

r e p o r t e d ,

W e

r"e-

ported back to the base. But we found out tl-Le i]ext day it was

a

Swedish ship that l-'url aground out [here ir] the sat]d, arid the ship
had broke up, and a] 1 this stuff had come off the shlp, arid I
believe there was eleven men lost their lives out there in that.
~tll; ] t t'i(=t£{ ~'!.lii agi" Ot.lFld

~ [ I ; h a ( i l l ' 11 g c J [ . < ~ l i l ; < J . t ' ~ p e d o e l J o 1 ' < ~ l ! i } . . . . .

cl-~ n<;1.
.[j :

No, rio

It hadn. t got: torpedoed or anything.

I

t

had

just

run aground,

H ~ D i d y o u s e e a n y t , o r. p e d o i r ~ g s o u t t h e r e o r a n y t . h i n g
nature, ships on fire?

of that

J]r~dges
H:

Did you hear any stories about any?

[ti

We.i i, I don't recall any stories of seeing ally ships on fire.

Not too long after we was down here we seen a ship-- we've

seer~

~ h i p s o f f s h o r e t h e r e , a n d t h e n t h e y q u i t g o i n g , Yo u k n o w

the.y

used to run pretty regular until the war came alonq aiu:t

ll.hei~)

~ubrnarir.~es got out the:re, and then they quit runr:Lir~g it, I cari't
r e c a l l a n y. I d i d n ' t s e e o n e a n y w a y, i n t r o u b l e .
.d:

flow about any uf your friends, did any of them get :involved

in any s~nkings, bombings--Do you know ot any bombs that we~-e
dropped ~rom Manteo?
B : N o , i d o n ' t , r e a l l y. I m e a n , I c o u l d i n f a c t h a v e h e a t e d
of it or something but I really don't know,

O k a y, Yo u t n e n t i o n e d d o w n a t S k y c o e y o u a l l d i d n ' t l J a v e i t . .
made too well, and that you operated out of somebody's private
] 3 0 t t S e , y o u ] < n o w, a s f a r a ~ y o u r o p e r a t i o n s w e r e c o n c e r ] ] e d , W h e r e
did everybody live when you all were down there?

b~ Well, they had an officers' club, down at Skycoe, Now where
the operations office is down there, you go in and go on down t~:)
the wat.e~.-, There's a big old bttildJng down t.he~e that they used
d u r i n g t h e C i v i l Wa r, T h e t - e ' s s o m e Ye m a i n s o [ : i t y e t , a i ~ d
tl]ere's all old ice plant down there, or wl]ere they stored ~ce, ]
aon't know whether they made ice or not, and that's tl]e bu;lldlng.
when Jiff~ H~milton was c.on~Y~ander of the base down there, and we
w a s t a l k i n g a b o u t C , @ . N a n n y, h e w a s t h e fl u n k y d o w n t h e r e ,

lie

Y. u r ~ a l " o u n d a n d d o n e e v e r y t h i n g t h a t w a s t o d o a b o u t , a n d t h e y
~tayed down at Skycoe. Other than that the most of them, just..
l i k e w h e r. e a m a n h a d h i s f a m i l y o f s o m e t r ~ i r, g , w e ~ " e n t e d a l . ) ] a c e
over here on the sound, Well, we rented a place a couple c,f
r fl o F ~ t h s t i p o 11 l i h e b e a c h , a n d t ; h e r ~ w e c o m e b a c k h e ~ o n t h e l S l a r l d .
They had an old hotel over there, I forget the name of lt:, L'~tlT
some of those fellows went in together and just rented the. who.te

thing, I think. It was maybe closed or sometl]ing,

I

believe

it.'s tore down now, but there was a bunch oi: them stayed in that:,

H:

,JusL any place they could,

.b:

,.]~..~St ar:y place they could.

H: How ~ic~ they eat?

D:d you all eat in a central piace or

catch as catch can?

B : C a t c h a s c a t . c h c a n . Ye s I ' l l t e l l y o u a g o o d s t o r y o n [ h a <
to show you about what the town was like wr~en we come dowI~1 he.t-'e,
1,¢o~c[.. Was]]]DLli--n alld ll]y~e]]~ wer][ 11] a ca~:e Ol]e l[lO]--l]lflcj

w~9 w(lf:

running a little D~u late co get co the base We were supposed to
]::e on the base a~ seven oclock down at

Skycoe.

W~ went ]i~ t<J

t h e c o u x ] [ e r a n d w e p u t i r ] t h e o r d e F, w e w e l - e j u s t g o i n g t o e a r . .
so~ne ham and eggs, r]ght quick, see, anti dldl]t sit down at a
t a b l e , w e ~ ] t u p o n a s t o o l . W e w a l t e d a r l d w d i r, e c i ~ i r ~ d w e . m e n t l ~ [ ~ i ] e c [
to the wait~'ess, a~ad she said you }4flOW we've Deer: all ov~]1 towr~
and we cant find a egg in Manteo. In other the words people had
they
colhe dowl] l]e-r"e al]d there was so malay me)re pe.oD.i e uc)wn r)e:e
J u s t

W ~ S F |

[

i i ~ l " e p a Ye d : o r t . ~ s ,

So thdt'S about wi]at happen<:c[, you s~e,

H:

More CAPers tl]al] I]at]ves.

B;

That's right.

H: Well, what was Manteo like then? Just a vacation territory?
B:

No, s:r. Well, some. It was a f'isl:ing town, pretty wei:,

]]:e.l-e'~, a lot of []sh caught down l-:e:~e ].I~ tl~= s,-.:,u~cl., Nag's H<::..:~<~,
over on the beach, rlow that's a vacatlor: towl], but., t lhel"e wa~: al':
o l d w o o d e l ] b 1 , . ~ c . i g e D ~ t w : x t h e Y ' e a n d t h e b e a c h . Yo u c : ] ' o ~ . ' s e d 1 . b a t
t : h l n g i n t h e m o ~ n i r ~ ! . 7 a n d t h e m p l a n k s w o u l d y a c K e . ~ : y, y, ~ . } ( ~ ? l ~ : , ' :
y a c ] < e t y, y o u k n o w, a n c l i ' v e s e e r ] , i d o n ' t ] ~ l ) o w, < h e r e ' s t w o o r

Bridges

three

of

s t a y e d

these

d o w n

two

h e r e

wheeled
u n t ~ l

carts

m a y b e

down

t e n

here

y e a r s

w~th

a g o

oxen,

u n t i l

and

t h e y

they

fi n a l l y

disappeared, But there was several teams of them around here at.
<.hat

t:.ime,

~ut

these

natives

down

here,

they're

clannish

type

people, but one t2me they know you, begzn to like you, you've got
a [rJend for" ilfe. We've got some or the best [tiends ,,[own l~e}-e
we've got
anywhere in the world.

1!.:

In

down

here it was pretty much just an isolated little colr~rJunJty,

[8.~

H:

other

T h a t ' s

words,

e x a c t l y

what

r i g h t .

you

I t

are

saying

is,

when

you

all

came

w a s ,

Did they have electriclty down here at the time or not?

I~

Ye ~ , , ~ i r, T h e 2 e i : r y J n g i s o n t h e e l e c t r i c c o m p a n y, a n d y o u

had power part of the time, and part of the time you didn't, Wl]eh
[.hey'd come a ~tol"m or the wind blew ~nd you might be out for two
or three days, and finally Vepco too,]< over and come in here and
w~:'ve got. fairly good service since
then, that t]me.

H~

But back during zhe war, i< was just when you had it you

had

it.

B~

YOU had it and you didn't have it part time.

H:

What about the base, did you have your own generators there?

.~ I dOI-~'t think ~o~ And of course, mayJ:,~,t you want that oi~
tape,

but

they

run

with

their

lights

off,

too,

Bridges
B: In other words, when you l~it tl]e island, when you crossed the
bl"idge up yol]der, you put it on your park, lights, and you drove
around he~'e, i~ you done any dFlvJx]u at nigl]t, you drove with
your pa~klng l lghts on.

H : Tha t was roF ~ecuF ] %y ~I e ~ s ~] ~r~ ~

subn~ar i ne

~n security reasons because they said that a

and the

could see a silhouette if you had a light, betwixt you
i]£Jht, they could see what was going on.

H

:

NOW,

yOU

a

[

I

moved

up

fF'oITl

Skycoe.

and

I

take

i

t

]

[

]~ttle bit better iacll~ty u[) at the Naval AIr" SLat]on.

B:

Ye s , y e s . w e l - ~ a d a l o t b e t t e r fi a c i t i t y,

H:

Well, tell me a little bit about how it was arranged.

B: Well, from my understanding, I don't ]<now, but my understanding, the con~nanding officer didn't want to move up there, He
wante~ to stay at Skycoe, where we was oper'at~ng. But Wa.~hington
<'.ol]]e in will] orders and ~]ve hll]] SO many day~; [,o be t~e~:e .b)., a
cercaln Lime, and we l]ad to move. wheth~r he wante<[ t~o move or
not. and we moved over a weekend, as well as ] remember.

H:

And that was the early part of December o~ '42.

b:

I'hat's r.lght.

M:

Whal.. did you see when you came up to the iVlant:eo NavaJ. A_vr

Star lOl]? ~U] Idll]gs. dlct you have bu~

ld]n~t~s,'

~ We had the bui lctings that we had built, that we'd

sawed the

lumber and built.

1/~

YOU Dttilt t.l]ei~~ up l]ere or did you carry them up from S]<ycoe?

Bridges
B: Part of them we carried them up--no we built

'em all up here,

I guess. ] guess we built 'em all up here.

~I:

O k a y. A n d h o w m a n y b u i l d i n g s d i d y o u h a v e ?

B.:

I believe about three small buildlngs.

H:

Did you have a hangar and an administrative--

B:

Well, the only hangar i think we had was just something to

work on the airplanes. We didn't have any hangar to store the
airplanes that we J?lew, they was just tied down out ]n the open.
In

other

words

you

might

call

it

a.shop,

It

wasn't

really

a

h a n g a r, 9 u s t a s h o p , Yo u h a d t o g e t ' e m i n o u t o r t h e w e a t h e r,
you know, to work on 'em sometimes,

H:

What runways did you use?

Did you use the runways that the

Navy u s e d , t o o ?
/

H~
B:

What were they ~tylng in here at the t~me?

Well, they had them, I believe they called 'em Wildcats,

one time,

] ~ , : Ye ~ , A n c l I i - e m e r ~ i k , e r w e l l t h i s l : e l l o w S t r a d l e y w e w a ~ . ~ t a l k i n g
about a while ago the~,'e, and you see there was foup men come here
0 ~ _ 11 . o l r < h e A l " r ~ ~ y, o i " . d l ~ a n c e m e n t o h a n d i ¢ t h a t a m m , . ~ n ~ t . ~ o ~ ~ , . t r i o t l : e
th:i~
stuff, and we'd been up to the airport where we .was at
morning, and went across there to the at~~:unition dump, And

that

Wildcat come in short, and he poured the coal on her, and

right

out here, ¢'ight the other slde of where the store is out

there

now, them pines was up big as your legs or bigger, and. he

just

Bridges
cut the tops out or all of tl]em, just flew right into them woods,
you ]<now, just rm.ished :iri. He oouldn!t get on out: agaln. And of
c o u r s e , w e w a s E h e fi r, ~ : . t o n e s t h e r e . M e a l ] d S t l ' : a c J i e y , 9 . i ~ d s o [ l ~ ¢ body and El]is ordnance malJ, we was the f~rst ones t)lat got: tl~ere.
We zun out thr'ougl] the woods, out there to where he cut all these
[l-'ees clown, alrplal~e tore all up there, and he was standing out
t h e r e i n f r o n t o f i t a n d h e s a y s : H e y, h a v e y o u g o t a c i g a r e t t e ' . ] '
'lb.'zing to bum a cigarette. There wasn't a scratch on the man.
It throwed him out of the plane and there wasn't a ,~cratch OF:
him, And he was flying one of them Wildcats.

H:

How did that make ~or a mix between your ~3tinsons

Wildcats, when you were coming in for landings?

B:

Well, I don't ever l:'emember any problems,

H~

Did you land by lights or did you land by radio?

B : We l a n d e d b y r a d i o . - - We l l , w e : i u s t l a n d e d b y v i s t t a l , m o s t l y,
Well, we j~:st flew Jn daylight.

H:

Ye s , b u t I m e a n d i d y o u g e t a g r e e n l i g h t f r o m t h e t o w e r "

lai]d, or did you just come on in?

B: Yes, i believe the Navy had the green light and they'd give
t.hat as well, I told you I couldn't remember, and I'm not too
positive on that, because there wasn't too many towers back then
like there is now, you know.

H:

Well, you didn't, have any real problems flying in tight with

the

Navy then.

~j~

Y O < I d i d ! i ' l l , g e l : . i n e a c h o t h e r s w a y, ] n o t h e r w o r d s .

Bridges
B:

We had the bunch down here that, what do you call them, wa~

it a Wildcat or som~:thil~g that made that rec~,rd ov{:;L' in the uther
c o u n t r y, t h a t w a s s o w i l d - - o n e o f t h e D o y s w a s f r o m m y h o m e t o w e l
t.J]ere, [hat_. was in that, and he told me that they was that wllc[
down here, he said they was flying down here one morning and

one

o~ 'em said to the other, says, wonder what's on down at

the

show. 'I'hey had a little theatre right down in Manteo there.
said.

He

I don't know. Let's go down and see. They come right

down Main Street with thelr Wildcat to see what was on at the
show down there. Oh, they was roughl

H:

Had to read the marquee?

1/~ Well, when you got your base set up up here at the main base,
how welt was it equipped, do you think you had all the toot~:?
Did the Army bring you the tools, or did everybody br~l~<.~ the.i~-"
o w n w i t h t h e m , y o u k n o w, y o u r - m e c h a n i c s a s a n e x a m p l e ?

B~
sir.

The mechanics brought their own tools, mostly I think, yes,
can tell you another pretty good story on Colonel Fi-ank

Dawson,

He wrote in, he went ovei" the heads for somet]~ing that

they needed pretty bad at the base, and he was on the telephone,
and they told him wiaat, all, let's see, I don't remember jtls5 how
that went, but i believe Johnson was the con~nanding office~' u.p
thel".e at that time, Earle Johnson, and he heard the man talking
to him on the telephone, and maybe that's when he'd mailed out
t.hem lettel:s, I told'~ou about that, didn't i? But anyhow he was
mailing out letters, government letters, where you shouldn't
ouppooed to be, and they said you can't do that, and he says I
done

done that, But when he wanted this equipment, something

t.hat

he went. over their heads, Johnson spoke up and says:

Give

man what they want, that's the kind of man we need down
need in this war. And that's about right, you know.
in
there,

that

other words what he was doing was cuttir~g a burtch of z'ed tape ahd
grit, what he wazat.ed. Butt i do~a't remember offhand what it was.

H: That's one of the reasons CAP was effective du~ing
They knew how t.~-~ cut red tape.

B :

H~

Ye s . D i d y o u k n o w C o l o n e l D a w s o n ' ?

I've of course l"ead abotlt him al]d

No, I ~,u.re didn't,

of him,

B~
say

Well,
that

he

was

about

one

of

the

anybody,

in

finest
other

men

I've

words

I

ever

love

known,

my

I

enemies

love

to

today,

DLtt ,~:olrlebody that's ~'eally been a good friend to you, you like to
say things about him that's t:~:'ue, you krlow.

~ Well, at tl]e l~]sk of surrmarizing, how do you 1:eel you.r' uperatlon was down he~'e? Do you feel like it was pretty effective?

H:

B :

From what viewpoint?

I ' c l

s a y,

i f

n o t h i n g

e l s e ,

m o ~ a l e ,

i J J

y o u '

l u s t

I t

little bit. This bridge up he~"e, Wright MemoYlal

t h l r ~ k

a

Br~dge, a]]. 1:l--re
a

bomb, cut

to do was come over' here

and droP

communications,

they all come acr'o,6s the

]:~-id.ge,

t i a r a s ,

p u t

on the z~ewspapers we are

on American

they'd have been

on ~me~"ican soil, they's

no way ~n the wor']d you

o t h e r

s i d e

a n d

h a d

cut

co[mm,u-~lci~.s o i l ,

a n d

couicff have got to them, ]~ere on this island. They could have too]<
this thing over any <~zne they wanted, and that'd have been r"lgi~t
, g r. a r t

f o r

t h i s

c o u n t r y.

T h e

m a r a l e

o f

i t .

]

t h i n k

w e

s t o p p e c l
dead
that,
They's pler~ty of these old timers, most of them are
down
down here now, would tell you, if the CAP hadn't of come
tl~ey
h e r e , t l ~ e y ' d i l a v e b e e r, o v e r h e r e . A n d I d o n ' t k n o w i f
would, but they could. Now when we werlt on the beach, we stayed

Br ~dges

over

there

on

the

beach,

llved

with

my

family

for

about,

guess

I

two months ,~:[:te~ we f~rst got down here. And. oh. It was

cold

and windy tl]em night~, they was awful. "lhe Coast Guard had

rlv~

m e n ,

t w o

s t a t i o n e d

a t

e a c h

p l a c e

a n ( ]

a

m a n

t h a t

w a l k e d - -

n o

there'd be one man at each statlon and two go in pairs and they'd

leave thls man and 9o t]l[ they meet, then they cl go back to the
man

:]landing

a l o n g ,

there,

l o o k i n g

f o r,

anc[
i f

a

they'd

patrol

s u b m a r l n e

that

c o m e

way

every

a s h o r e .

nlght

Yo u

k n o w

all
t n ~ t

was about the time some of these submarines Landed down In F]or~.da and they'd captured some of them or somethirJg. And thi-~ w~s Ltn
ideal spot for them to land when they wanted to, because:: ev~JJ
these

banks

out

here

ain

t

nothing

but

sand

bars,

dnd

they

can

take a subraarine and go out the~'e and ~et l~er right down o~] Ll~a<
Sa~]d and 5el there until they get ready to move. you kHow.
it

is

an

ideal

spot

for

them

to

come

in,

and

I

cer¢ainly

But

thin]<

it

was effective.

H :

We l l ,

d i d

t h e

s h i p p i n g

l o s s e s

s t o p

a f t e r

y o u

started

a l l

flying, or--you say you d~(~n't see a ~ot of s:Lnklngs.

[8~ I 1:liink I_.he.:t.'e was a lot el shipping stopped, because they'd
sunk

so

many

of

them

up

there,

but

then

it

wasl]'t

too

long

until

t]~y wa~ Funning again, and I think it did--if thin]< th~ shiDpln9
l o s s e s - - I ' m
b o y

w l t . h

n o

p r o u d

t o

b e

a

e d u c a t i o n ,

p a r t

a n d

I

o f

i t ,

d i d n ' t

r e a l l y.
g i v e

I ' m

a n y

j u s t

o t h e r

a

¢ o u n t r y

p a r t

o f

n t y

fife to ~ervice, and I'm proud that I did give that mu¢h [:~a~.t ot
it t.o my country,

H:

Well,

get
a

into

libtle

you
the
bit,

all

certainly

statistics,
50

you

feel

accomplished

I'II

probably

like

your

a

cover

base,

lot,

you

them

then,

know,

tonight

was

I

won't

fO~

p~-.etty

you
well

organized, pretty well operated, and that you we~'e overall pFet.ty
e ff e c t i v e ,

a n d

y o u

fl e w

m o ~ t

o f

t h e

day, good weather, bad weather,
it dJ.dn't make any differ'ence, huh?

m i s s i o n s ,

Yo u

fl e w

e v t : - ~ r y

B:

T h a t s r i g h t , p r - e t t y w e ~ i . O f c o u r s e w e d 3 . d n t fl y ~ i - m ' . < Y, L ~ -

~itent.s, but. we flew in weathe,~ that we shouldn [ have f.~uw ,n.
really.

But

most

of

the

time

we

flew.

Ye s .

I

a

say

It:

w.~:~

~,

well Yun, and buFnee[ ou~ as well as <hey could undeY t1~ c~ctm~-stances and ~s as humanly possible, because, you kn(~w, eve~ w fth
tlqe vei"v best. we ~~ake mLstakes, and i think it w~s c(~rr.~t~u out
about as good as iu could hdve been.

iff...' Well, you took a band of disorganized civJi[ans and t:urnec :~t
into a pzet~y gooa miticary oz-ganizatlon

.B.~

That s ~'ight. It puts me ~n mi~-}d a whole lot of the i<~,~t~:~:.

of Kings Mountain, with tnem sharpsnoo~ers connng up cr~.,~_~ ,~ o~
bop Of t.he r~oui][.a]n, you ]<now, you could sort of compdFe ~t w.~th
that. £'a say.

H~
a r e

O k a y, h c o u p l e o ~ : r - ~ i s c e ! l a n e o u s s p e , _ : i f ~ c L h ~ ~ g s , a n d t h e s e
m o s t l y

t o

g a t h e ~

s o m e

i n [ o r m a t ~ o n

I

n e e d .

N o b o d y

w r o t e

,

base history of Base 16.

B', T!~at'~ the sad part. Base 21, that's the book ti~.,t I~: snowed
you,

Colonel

Dawson

give

me

autographed,

they

h~d

pic<uzes

~t

everybody on the base. They's nobody on this ba~~e L!,,~L ~1~,~-,
that, which, I'd have been m.[ghty proud to have had elre of the~l;

H:

Well, I hope to make up for that shot*Cage some Gay. It may

be only a chapter, but it'll be more than they hove ztow,
i n s i g n i a - - y o u

d o n ' t

r e c a l l ,

y o u

s a i d

e a r l i e r,

t h a t

l~ase

t h ~ . , y

h a d

anything special like' a buffflolebee on the airplane or- a ghost of a
witch oz" a goblin o£ anything palnte(i on the airplane Lh~L would
signlfy Jt came ~-rom Base 16.

B~ I don'f, They could have been after Z Je£t Lt~e b~se. yo,~ se,~,
and they could have been when I was down here, but i /isn't ~-el.,~emDe£ it.

Dr i dg e,t:

H:

Now

you

left

the

base,

you

said,

what.

in

,Jariualy,

nrle

tail

end o~ January oli 43. and w]lat was your' ~nvotvement ~n CAP ,~ft~y'
that, you pretty much ct~'oppect c~ut. or wnar /

ye.;~.

~ i

l;} ~:ld.

[ [.d:et.<.y w~] J (tro:)ped ()uL~ . t~,w my

~:.,~_~,.,r u ....

W~ShJgUJr'll ,

l i e w £ ~ , . % . " l i l y O D , ~ g f Ve i £ 1 ] ~ 11 , d ] i t t L ] ~ - C l < t ~ : ) ~

tl('t"It k~tlt,~i"~ k i, ~

.[ all], he

wa~ act lye in tthe CA[~ bdcJ< .j.n ~,~1 home

colonel

He worked witll FranK Dawson very well.

a ])et~i.er

friend o~f Fran]< Dawson t]]an I was. i met Frank

b ~ e .

h e

In tact

~o.~s
he was
Dawson

th~-ougn George Washbu~'n, and he worked witrl the CAP--

H~ d~eo~-ge WasrJ~]u~'n passed ,sway not. t)o ,onq ago.

B:

Ye s . I d o n t K n o w.

it s Deer~ seve]'a] y~ars l~ow. 1o~..~t of
]-]e. wa~: a vet-'/- <JOOq fr']~_~r~d <,L f~Xll~.

ye[lt'"5 c~]:" 8offlethllqg

H: Okay. Your involvement then in CAP since your setvice at
b a s e ] ] a s b e e n n o n e , Yo u j u s t h a v e n ' t h a d a n y.

B :

That's rJ.ght,

H~

O k a y, Yo u t l i i n k o f a n y t h ] ~ , g e l s { : ~ o ~ ~ , : f e - n ~ , ~ a ~

occurred during that pev-Jod that you--

Well,
t h a t

i.eally

p e ~ ' i o d .

I

I

don't.

t e l l

y o u ,

They's
t

a

d o n ' t

lot

of

t h l n k

t:.h~ngs

i ' v e

g o t

occur'red

i t .

d o w n

~n

h e ~ e ,

the~-'e's a book a friend of mine, Sta~ley Green. ]i'd like fo~ you
He publi.~hed
,;~ bo.<~k
him and. get one of }li~ books,
to wr'ite
~:~:t~.:iJ,,:~!
arK1 ].Je?,ng a
oh--l]e'd
t.eac]l scF~<:~o] down hei,'e ,.~t. Avoil,
!:;t,~-~t ¢
:-:~,~yi?e tl-,/,,.:: w,;~.,::;
this wa.~ -$o;l:g or:,
a b o u t ti~e t i m e t h a t r i l l
that.,

]:,ttt

t:.]-~]s was ]n

they

took

they

rJeeded

thing

t.l~e ~,..~r~~e war !:.l~at

do

about Army

in

the

service,

Coast
they

Guard
just

there,

picked

l l e S C ] ] e Y a f ] ( ] F i e W e l ] t . ] J ~ t h e ~ : t ~ l . - v i l ( Te [ o l t h a t .

a-I::~ght.~ ;:~r~d
a-t,~,t~ci~ihg drl,2i.

i~ we.s

him and he went to No~'tolk and
to

we w~s

and

him

up

didn't
as

a

know

a

sciqool

Y, . ) t l ' d ] i ) < t . ] r ~ t . ~ z ~ : ' , . t , : ~ d

Br-~,dges
What kind of books did he write?

B : W e l l , M Y A D V E N T U R E S AT H I T T Y K E Y O R AV O N , t h a t ' s ~ l l t : t ] e
town on the outer banks below here, below Oregon inlet,

H:

That didn't relate to CAP though, did it'?

B : N o , t h a t w a s j u s t a i l t s l e b i t e a r l i e r t h a n C A P, r e a l l y , 3 u ~ : r . .
before CAP come dowrl here, I believe. But it was all on tl]e
outer banks of North Carol~na and the protection and sa[ety of
N o r t h C a Yo l ~ r, a , w h a t t t h e C o a s t G u a r d d o n e a n d a l l , y o u k n o w.

H:

Probably more about liiesavlng an([ thlncfs

] lke

[:fiat

tl]al]

i,~

real

ar~t ] submar ] ne patrol.

B:

H~

It'd tie in pretty good with it, I believe.

Ye . $ , s o l ] , e o f t h a t a d v a n c e i n f o r m a t i o n

sometimes

t i m e l y, P a u l .

. _ ~ W e l l . I d i d l ] ' T: k n o w h i m . y o u s e e . b e c a u s e h e w a s a h e ~ t ( 1 o f m y
d a y, b u t s o m e o f h i s c o l l e g e f r i e n d s p l a y e d a j o k e o n h i m . ' l ' n e y
wrote to the Dare County Board of Education. He's a little fellow, skinny little fellow, and they was having trouble c[owl] theFe
In their school.

This big rough outer bar}k people and they

couldn't control their children, some off them grown maybe, dnd
tlley was havil-lg troubl~ ill t]~e school ~nd they was ~dve~tlsl~-,g
rot a big husky man to co~]tyol the school. And he was Just a
skinny little man, and they sent his application in for hlm, ~nd
they accepted him, and he d~ctn't Know wl]e[~ he come down l]eFe Wl-,at
lie COi~~e 1~]tO. NOW you can picture th~ man in that ]<lJ~d ol Dos]tlon, but lie ma{]e good out of it.

kl~ lt.',~ l]ot alway¢, your size that does it for you,

Br'idges
B: No, sir. It's your attitude and how you handle 'things,

Yo u

ca~~ haridle--well if you handle hilli right, you can handle

the

meanest man ir~ the world. 3ust as easy as with kid gloves, if

you

handle him r"ight.

H:

5omet. imes it's eo~y to handle the big ones.

are

sometimes easier than the little olios,

B:

The big ones

That's right.

H: The fact of the matter', my observation, sometJme,~ the little
o n e s a r e t o o h a r d t o h a n d l e . O k a y, l e t ' s j u s t c l o s e o u t t h e l : a p e
a~hd say that I appyeclaLe the

oppoYtuFtity

tO ]llte$~V]mW y<~t{.

.bet.

r n e g i v e y o u m y s u r m ~ i a r ~ y o f w h a t y o u d i d , P a ( ~ l , i f I m a y. ] ' m o n e
,..)f the ones that greatly admire the ~"eal Am~":[c~r: sp-~r"~t o[
people like you who gave up an obviously prospering business and
r t m ~ v e d y o u r [ : a m i l y, l o c k , s t o c k a n d b a r r e l , d o w n h e r e t o p r o t e c t
your country at a time When it was in real ]]act need of it, and I
[or ol-~e certainly appreciate the opportunity to get your' thoughts
on what you did down here. 7'hat's generally the purpose o~ what
we are tryil]g tO do