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«

FOREWORD

For

a

band

of

"amateurs"

at

the

art

of

warfare,

even

belated

admiration of the professionals, is indeed a tribute to their
a b i l i t y. S u c h i s t h e e s s e n c e o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l p a p e r o n
airborne anti-submarine warfare prepared by the author which
i s r e p u b l i s h e d i n t h i s m o n o g r a p h i n i t s e n t i r e t y.

T h e a u t h o r. L i e u t e n a n t J o h n R . H e n n i g a n w a s c o m m i s s i o n e d f r o m
the Naval Reserve Officers Training Corp Program at the
University of Notre Dcime in 1978. He then entered Naval
Flight Officer training and earned his wings in July 1979.
He was subsequently assigned to Patrol Squadron Sixteen,
b a s e d i n J a c k s o n v i l l e , F L , w h e r e h e s e r v e d a s a Ta c t i c a l
Coordinator

and

Mission

Commander

in

the

P-3C

aircraft.

D u r i n g t h i s t o u r, h e d e p l o y e d t o S i c i l y, B e r m u d a , a n d t h e
Philippines. Lt. Hennigan reported to his current assignment
at NROTC Unit, University of Florida, in December 1982.

As can be seen from the above. Lieutenant Hennigan certainly
represents a true professional in the art of airborne anti
submarine warfare. His multi-services review of the opera
tions

at

hand

are

well

rounded

and

devoid

of

the

branch

of

s e r v i c e b i a s n o r m a l l y e n c o u n t e r e d . I n p a r t i c u l a r, h i s
treatment of Civil Air Patrol is comprehensive and accurate.
The fact that he acknowledges the absolute necessity for
W

i

civil Air Patrol bridging the gap in anti-submarine warfare
capability between the beginning of World War II and the
rightful ass\imption of responsibility by the United States
Navy is certainly a tribute to those who so willingly
d e d i c a t e d t h e m s e l v e s t o t h e d e f e n s e o f t h e i r c o u n t r y.
Although written specifically about Florida Coastal Patrol
Bases this delayed admiration should be shared by all personnel
of

the

21

such

bases

of

the

Civil

Air

Patrol.

Lester

E.

Hopper

COLONEL

CAP

National

Historian

New

Orleans,

October

i

i

1984

Louisiana

P R E FA C E

As a Naval Flight Officer whose warfare specialty is
ASW/ it was natural that I chose this subject as the topic
f o r t h i s p a p e r. H o w e v e r, i n l i m i t i n g t h e t o p i c t o m i s s i o n s
flown from Florida bases, I acknowledged the fact that
resources

would

be

difficult

to

locate.

In

fact,

only

five

of the references cited in the bibliography were available

locally; the others were made available by the generous
support of several individuals, without whom this paper
would not have been possible. Gracious thanks are in order
for COL Lester E. HOPPER, Chairman, National Historical
Committee, Civil Air Patrol, who provided me with much moral
and resource support. He opened his historical files to me,
which in turn opened my eyes to the valuable contributions
made by the Civil Air Patrol to the U.S. war effort. I
w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o t h a n k L C O L E l i z a b e t h S E D I TA , F l o r i d a C A P

Wing Historian, for her generous support. I extend a special
thank you to Ms. Gwendolyn J. Rich and the Office of Naval
Aviation History and Archives for providing Naval Operational
Summaries.

I apologize for any lack of detailed information in the
p a p e r. E r r o r s o f o m m i s s i o n w e r e d u e p r i m a r i l y t o i n f o r m a t i o n
being unavailable in the relatively short time in which this
research was performed.
J . R . H .

Gainesville,

i i i

Florida

TA B L E

OF

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION
N AV Y O R G A N I Z AT I O N — G E N E R A L
N AV Y

O R G A N I Z AT I O N — S P E C I F I C

N AVA L A I R C R A F T T Y P E S , B A S E S , A N D S Q U A D R O N S 6
TA B L E 1 ; U N I T S A S S I G N E D T O F L E E T A I R W I N G 1 2 O P E R AT I N G

FROM

FLORIDA

BASES

8

TA B L E 2 ; U N I T S A S S I G N E D T O F L E E T A I R S H I P W I N G 2
O P E R AT I N G F R O M F L O R I D A B A S E S

N AVA L
TA B L E

O P E R AT I O N S
3:

ACTION

FROM

SUMMARY

FLORIDA
OF

FLEET

BASES
AIRWING

10
12

11

TA B L E 4 : A C T I O N S U M M A RY O F F L E E T A I R S H I P W I N G 2 11
ARMY
CIVIL

AIR
AIR

FORCE
PAT R O L

12

O R G A N I Z AT I O N

14

CAP

GENERAL

O P E R AT I O N S

15

CAP

SPECIFIC

O P E R AT I O N S

17

UNITED

S TAT E S

COAST

SUMMARY

GUARD

19
20

A P P E N D I X 1 : N AVA L A I R C R A F T A N D A I R S H I P S U S E D F O R A S W 2 1
PAT R O L .

A P P E N D I X 2 ; C H A RT O F D A I LY A I R A R E A C O V E R A G E B Y A A F 2 3
B O M B E R A N D O B S E R VAT I O N S Q U A D R O N S O P E R AT I N G
U N D E R G U L F TA S K F O R C E .

A P P E N D I X 3 ; C H A RT O F D A I LY A I R A R E A C O V E R A G E B Y C A P 2 4
C O A S TA L PAT R O L U N I T S O P E R AT I N G U N D E R G U L F
TA S K

FORCE.

FOOTNOTES

25

B I B L I O G R A P H Y

i v

INTRODUCTION

w

It was not long after the United States formally entered
World War II that the German submarine (U-boat) campaign in

the Atlantic expanded to include the coastal waters of the
U n i t e d S t a t e s . I n M a y 1 9 4 2 , t h e G u l f S e a F r o n t i e r, w h i c h
extended from Jacksonville, Florida south to Key West, and
which included the Gulf of Mexico, had the most severe losses

by submarine attack of any area in the Atlantic Ocean;

forty-one ships displacing 219,867 gross tons were lost.^
The Gulf Sea Frontier ranked second in losses in Atlantic

a r e a s i n J u n e , 1 9 4 2 a n d w a s t h i r d i n J u l y, 1 9 4 2 w i t h l o s s e s

of twenty-one ships (91,277 gross tons) and sixteen ships
2

( 6 5 , 9 2 4 g r o s s t o n s ) r e s p e c t i v e l y. O t h e r e x a m p l e s o f t h e
severity of the U-boat threat were two instances of German
submarines landing saboteurs on beaches in the Gulf Sea
F r o n t i e r. U - 5 8 4 l a n d e d a p a r t y o n P o n t e Ve d r a B e a c h , n e a r
3

Jacksonville, on or about 17 June 1942. A second party was
landed

from

an

unknown

U-boat

south

during the period May-July 1942.

of

Sarasota,

Florida

4

To h e l p c o u n t e r t h e U - b o a t t h r e a t . N a v a l a v i a t i o n u n i t s ,
the Army Air Force (AAF), and airborne units of the Coast
Guard and the Civil Air Patrol (CAP) were employed during

v a r i o u s p h a s e s o f t h e w a r. E v e n c i v i l a i r l i n e p i l o t s w e r e
asked to maintain a lookout and report any suspicious
sightings when their scheduled routes took them over water.

1

This paper will present the organizations and operations of
Florida-based

airborne

anti-submarine

warfare

(ASW)

units

o f t h e N a v y , A A F , C A P, a n d C o a s t G u a r d .

Navy

Organization

-

General

As the United States moved closer to the brink of entering

World War II, the Navy began to organize its forces to combat
the potential threat of the German submarines. The Gulf Sea
Frontier was one of four coastal patrol sectors established

by the Chief of Naval Operations (CNO), Admiral H. R. Starke,

on 1 July 1941.^ Under the cognizance of the Seventh Naval
District, the Frontier's headquarters were located initially

^

i n K e y W e s t , F l o r i d a ; h o w e v e r, t h e y w e r e m o v e d t o t h e D u P o n t

6

Building in Miami, Florida effective 17 June 1942. The
Frontier extended from Jacksonville to the Yucatan Peninsula

o f M e x i c o a n d w o r k e d w i t h t h e C o n v o y C o n t r o l C e n t e r, l o c a t e d

at Key West, to coordinate airborne patrols.^
The Frontier was under the operational command of the

Navy's ASW Command (Atlantic), which was initially headed by
A d m i r a l R . E . I n g e r s o l l . L a t e r, o n 2 0 M a y 1 9 4 3 , t h i s c o m m a n d
w a s r e d e s i g n a t e d a s t h e Te n t h F l e e t . T h e G u l f S e a F r o n t i e r
was commanded by Rear Admiral J. L. Kauffman from its in

ception until 3 February 1943. He was succeeded by Captain
H . H . J . B e n s o n , w h o w a s t h e n f o l l o w e d b y V i c e A d m i r a l W. R .
Munroe. Captain Benson again commanded the Frontier from
W

2

25 March to 17 July 1944; he was succeeded by Vice Admiral
W. S . A n d e r s o n , w h o w a s t h e c o m m a n d i n g o f fi c e r u n t i l t h e e n d
of

the

war.

g

The Navy's efforts to implement airborne ASW patrols,

not only from Florida bases and in the Gulf Sea Frontier but
t h r o u g h o u t t h e N o r t h A t l a n t i c t h e a t e r, w e r e h a m p e r e d b y
several interservice problems. In 1941, the AAF controlled
almost the entire supply of military land-based aircraft.

Not expecting to include ASW among their duties. Army pilots
w e r e n o t t r a i n e d t o fl y o v e r w a t e r, t o p r o t e c t s h i p p i n g , o r
to bomb small moving targets such as submarines. The Navy

did not operate land-based aircraft because of the 1920 Army
Appropriations Act, which designated the AAF as responsible
for land-based aviation and the Navy for sea-based aviation.

9

When British experience demonstrated that large, land-based
a i r c r a f t w o r k e d b e s t f o r A S W, G e n e r a l M a r s h a l l , o n 7 J u l y

1942, agreed to modify the Act so as to reallocate land-based
assets to the Navy (it was believed that the Navy's PBY air

craft, while having long endurance, were slow and vulnerable

to U-boat machine guns).^^
As an interim measure until the Navy's land-based patrol
command could become fully operational, the War Department

reorganized the AAF's 1st Bomber Command to employ it as an
ASW unit in the Eastern and Gulf Sea Frontiers.The Navy

h o p e d t o u s e t h e C o m m a n d f o r r o u t i n e p a t r o l s a n d c o n v o y c o v e r,
but the Army wanted to employ "killer tactics" using

3

intelligence to search out and destroy a known U-boat.
A d d i t i o n a l l y, A r m y p i l o t s c o n t i n u e d t o h a v e p r o b l e m s w i t h

overwater navigation and with locating convoys. In 1942,
as interservice cooperation deteriorated, CNO Admiral E. J.

King was determined to end AAF participation in ASW as soon
as the Navy had enough aircraft and pilots. The formation
o f t h e Te n t h F l e e t i n M a y, 1 9 4 3 g e n e r a t e d a d d i t i o n a l c o n
troversy between the AAF and the Navy as to how the ASW
effort should be coordinated. On 10 June 1943, much to the

delight of Admiral King, General Marshall finally decided
that the AAF would no longer contribute to the ASW effort.

1 3

Navy Organization - Specific
W

The Navy's land-based airborne ASW efforts had their
beginnings in the formation of several Patrol Wings and Fleet
Airship Wings in the Eastern and Gulf Sea Frontiers.
L o c a t e d i n F l o r i d a w e r e F l e e t A i r W i n g Tw e l v e ( FA W 1 2 ) a n d
F l e e t A i r s h i p W i n g Tw o ( FA S W 2 ) .

FAW12 was commissioned on 16 September 1942 as Patrol

W i n g Tw e l v e a t N a v a l A i r S t a t i o n , K e y We s t , F l o r i d a . U n d e r
the operational command of Commander, Gulf Sea Frontier,
Patrol Wing Twelve was redesignated FAW12 on 1 November 1942.
A d m i n i s t r a t i v e l y, F A W 1 2 w a s u n d e r t h e c o g n i z a n c e o f t h e
f o l l o w i n g : C o m m a n d e r, P a t r o l W i n g s A t l a n t i c f r o m 1 6 S e p t e m b e r
t o 1 N o v e m b e r 1 9 4 2 ; C o m m a n d e r, F l e e t A i r w i n g s A t l a n t i c f r o m
1 N o v e m b e r t o 3 1 D e c e m b e r, 1 9 4 2 ; a n d C o m m a n d e r, A i r F o r c e ,
Atlantic Fleet from 1 January 1943 to 14 July 1945.

4

FAW 1 2 ' s h e a d q u a r t e r s w e r e r e l o c a t e d t o M i a m i e f f e c t i v e
20 September 1943, but were later returned to Key West on

2 June 1945,^^
FAW 1 2 w a s c o m m i s s i o n e d f o r c l o s e r s u p e r v i s i o n o f A S W

o p e r a t i o n s i n t h e G u l f S e a F r o n t i e r. A l t h o u g h FAW 5 h a d b e e n
a s s i g n e d t h i s a r e a o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y, i t s h e a d q u a r t e r s
(located in Norfolk, Virginia) were too distant for close

supervision. When the submarine menace to Gulf Sea Frontier
s h i p p i n g i n c r e a s e d i n i n t e n s i t y, i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1 9 4 2 , t h e

apparent need for a separate patrol wing in the area was made
obvious.After commissioning, U-boat activity was
relatively light and only three ships were sunk from
S e p t e m b e r 1 9 4 2 t o M a y 1 9 4 3 , a n d n o n e w e r e s u n k t h e r e a f t e r.
FAW l 2 * s o p e r a t i o n a l m i s s i o n s i n c l u d e d r o u t i n e p a t r o l s o v e r
shipping lanes, convoy coverage, individual ship coverage,
air-sea rescue services, and message drops. The Wing's
Commanding Officers were as follows
1 6 S e p t e m b e r 1 9 4 2 C a p t a i n W . G . To m l i n s o n
12

8

2

October

1942

November

January

1942

1943

12

January

27

February

Commander

Captain

Commander

1943

Captain

1943

Captain

B.

A.

B.

C.

McCaffree

I.

Price

C.

McCaffree

J.

J.

Michael

H.

T.

Stanley

22 February 1944 Captain W. K. Rhodes
21

May

1945

Commander

5

J.

H.

S.

Johnson

R e g a r d i n g a i r s h i p s , FA S W 3 0 w a s c o m m i s s i o n e d o n 1 D e c e m b e r
1942 as an administrative command to administer all airship
units in the Atlantic Fleet. Headquartered at Lakehurst,

N e w J e r s e y, a l l fl e e t a i r s h i p s w e r e u n d e r t h e o v e r a l l c o m m a n d
1 8

of Rear Admiral C. E. Rosendahl. Airship Squadron Twenty-

one, assigned but stationed in Richmond, Florida (near Miami),
w a s r e d e s i g n a t e d F l e e t A i r s h i p G r o u p Tw o o n 1 M a r c h 1 9 4 3 ,
a n d u l t i m a t e l y b e c a m e FA S W 2 o n 1 5 J u l y 1 9 4 3 . A s s i g n e d t o t h e
Wing were three ZP (blimp) squadrons, one headquarters

squadron, and one HEDRON (personnel support and maintenance)
1 9

d e t a c h m e n t . FA S W 2 w a s c o m m i s s i o n e d f o r o p e r a t i o n s i n t h e

geographical limits of the Gulf Sea Frontier to conduct ASW
patrols, air coverages to surface units and convoys, searches,
air-sea rescue services, and mine spotting. The Wing was
decommissioned on 16 June 1945. Wing Commanding Officers
were

as

^

T,

follows:

1

December

1

March

20

Captain G. H. Mills

1942

C a p t a i n W. E . Z i m m e r m a n

1943

15 July 1943
6 August 1943

Captain M. M. Bradley

1 May 1944

C o m m a n d e r M . F. D . F l a h e r t y

12 February 1945

Navy

Commander A. L. Cope

Commander A. L. Cope

Aircraft
When

the

Types,
United

Bases

and

States

Squadrons

entered

the

war

in

December

1941,

there were a total of forty-three aircraft available for ASW
2 1

patrol in the entire Seventh Naval District. By February

6

W 1942, Florida-based assets included one squadron of twelve
Catalina Flying Boats (PBYs) split between Jacksonville and
Key West, and small single-engine OS2U-3s and S0C-3s.

2 2

The latter could stay airborne for only three hours when

carrying depth bombs. In February 1943, the number of Floridabased aircraft had increased to approximately ninety-six;

i n S e p t e m b e r, t h e N a v y r e c e i v e d t h e fi r s t A S W - e q u i p p e d B - 2 4
L i b e r a t o r s f r o m t h e A A F, s o m e o f w h i c h m a y h a v e fl o w n f r o m
2 3

Florida bases. Appendix 1 details the characteristics of
the various Naval aircraft and airships. By the Summer of
1943, many of the patrol aircraft were equipped with 10 cm.
S-band, microwave radar sets whose use proved to be difficult
to detect or jam. Nevertheless, the primary tactics were
based on visual searches.The blimps also became radar-

equipped, and their slow speeds enabled their aircrews to
spot U-boats easier. They also had longer endurance than
a i r c r a f t a n d c o u l d o p e r a t e a t n i g h t a n d i n f o u l w e a t h e r.
Their main disadvantage was that they were easily detected by
U-boat

lookouts.

25

FAW 1 2 i n c l u d e d F l o r i d a s q u a d r o n s t h a t o p e r a t e d f r o m K e y

We s t , B o c a C h i c a ( n e a r K e y We s t ) , D e L a n d a n d B a n a n a R i v e r
( n e a r p r e s e n t d a y P a t r i c k A i r F o r c e B a s e ) . Ta b l e 1 b e l o w
s p e c i fi e s t h e FAW 1 2 s q u a d r o n s t h a t o p e r a t e d f r o m F l o r i d a
bases and the corresponding dates of assignment. The followi n g i s a s u m m a r y ( b y l o c a t i o n ) o f Ta b l e 1 :
W

7

26

Ta b l e

1

U N I T S A S S I G N E D T O F A W 1 2 O P E R AT I N G F R O M F L O R I D A B A S E S

D a t e s

Squadron (type aircraft)

L o c a t i o n

V
V
V
V
V
V

Key West

September 1942

Key West

Sep
Sep

42

Key West

N o v

Key West

F e b
F e b

42
43
43

F e b

4 3

M a r

J u l

4
4
4
4
4
4

Aug

4 4

D e c

4 4

O c t

M a r

4
4
4
4

J a n

4 3

Apr

M a r

4
4
4
4
4

May

4 3

P
P
5
5
P
P

-

5
8
3
6
2
2

3
1
9
2
0 2
08

(PBY)
(PBY)
(052U)
(052U)
(PBM)
(PBM)
VP-208
(PBM)
VP-6 3
(PBY)
B V - 1 2 5 (PV)
V P - 1 3 2 (PV)
V P - 2 1 3

(PBM)
V P - 1 4 3 (PV)
V P - 2 0 1 (PBM)
VPB-204 (PBM)

Headquarters Squadron
River
Detachment
DeLand Detachment
Boca
Chica
Detachment
VB-127
(PV)
B a n a n a

VB-128
VB-129
VC-130

(PV)
(PV)
(PV)

V B - 1 3 1

(PV)

VB-133

(PV)

VC-134

(PV)

VB-141

(PV)

V B - 1 4 3
V B - 1 4 5

(PV)
(PV)

Banana

River

Key West
Key West
Key West
Boca
Chica
DeLand
Boca
Chica

J a n

Key West
Boca Chica
Key West
Key West
Key West

D e c

Banana
River
DeLand
Boca
Chica
DeLand
Boca
Chica
DeLand
DeLand
Boca
Chica
DeLand
Boca
Chica
DeLand
Boca
Chica
DeLand
Boca
Chica
DeLand
Boca
Chica
DeLand
Boca
Chica
DeLand
Boca
Chica
DeLand
Boca
Chica

J a n

W

8

M a r
J u n

J a n

F e b
F e b

May

4 2

3
3
3
3
3
4

2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3

4 3
J u n 4 3
M a r 4 3
June 43
A p r 43
J u l 43
J u n 4 3
M a r

J u l
J u n

J u l
J u l

Aug

43
43
4 3

4 3
4 3

Dec
Jan
Jan
Nov
Nov
Jul







-





42
45
45
43
43
44

May 44

-

Jun
Oct
Nov

-

-

-

43
43
44

Mar

-

45

May 45
July 45

-



Jun
Jun
Jan

-

-

-

-

-

-

45
43
45

Apr
May
May
May



43
43
43
43

May 43

-

Jan

-

43

May 43

-

-

■-

June
Jul

43
43

Jun

-

43

Jul

-

43

Aug 43

-

Jul

-

-

-

-

43

Aug 43
Aug 43
Sep 43

1. Key West had a monthly average of four squadrons
assigned between September 1942 and July 1945.
2.

Detachments

to

Boca

Chica

started

in

March

1943,

and peaked with six squadrons assigned in July 1943.
After November 1943, average monthly strength was
one or two squadrons.

3. The DeLand detachment began with three squadrons in

February 1943, and peaked in April 1943 with eight

squadrons assigned. The detachment was discontinued
after August 1943.

4. A permanent detachment was maintained at Banana River
that averaged two squadrons from September 1942 to
July 1945.

FASW2, based at Richmond, Florida, provided detachments

to Key West from February 1943 to April 1944, to Banana River
from November 1943 to May 1945, as well as to numerous other
Caribbean Basin bases. ZP21 was kept intact at Richmond

until the end of the war.^^ Table 2 details Florida-based
airship squadrons and detachments.
Ta b l e

2

UNITS ASSIGNED TO FASW2 OPERA
TING FROM FLORIDA BASEs'
Squadron

L o c a t i o n

D a t e s

ZP-21

Richmond

Dec 42 - May 45
Feb 43 - Apr 44
Nov 43 - May 45

ZP-21
ZP-21

Key West

(Det.)
(Det.)

Banana

River

Airship Training Det.
Headquarters Squadron 2

Key West

HEDRON Detachment 21-3
HEDRON Detachment 21-2
HEDRON Detachment 21

Key West

Richmond
Banana
River
Richmond

9

Jan
Jul
Jul
Nov

44
43
43
43

Sep 44

Feb
Jun

44
45

Jun
Jan
Jan

45
45
45

Naval

Operations

from

Florida

Bases

In the Gulf Sea Frontier, there were present approxi

mately two U-boats per month in early 1942, nine-sixteen
U - b o a t s i n M a y, f o u r i n J u n e a n d J u l y, t w o i n A u g u s t a n d
S e p t e m b e r, 1 9 4 2 , a n d t h r e e o r f o u r p e r m o n t h t h e r e a f t e r t o t h e
end

of

the

war

Ta b l e

3

below

is

a

summary

of

the

opera

tions of FAW12 to counter the threat. Noteworthy are the

facts that during the entire period, only one U-boat was
d a m a g e d b y FA W 1 2 a i r c r a f t , n o n e w e r e s u n k , a n d n o a i r c r a f t
w e r e d a m a g e d o r l o s t i n c o m b a t . To t a l fl i g h t h o u r s fl o w n b y
a l l a i r c r a f t a s s i g n e d t o FAW 1 2 a v e r a g e d 6 5 0 0 p e r m o n t h w i t h

peaks of 11966, 11403, and 11900 in April, May and July of
2 9

1 9 4 3 r e s p e c t i v e l y. W e a t h e r w a s c o n s i d e r e d t o b e e x c e l l e n t

throughout the area patrolled. Unrestricted flying con
ditions prevailed about ninety-nine percent of the time, with
the only problems being two or three hurricane evacuations.

30

Frontier patrols were highlighted by the account of one pilot
fl y i n g f r o m K e y We s t w h o s i g h t e d a p e r i s c o p e , c i r c l e d f o r
the kill, pulled the bomb release, and discovered that he had
failed to open the bomb bay doors. As he circled for a reattack, a second smaller plane dove for the U-boat with .30
caliber guns blazing; the U-boat crash-dived and apparently
escaped unharmed.

To t a l m o n t h l y fl i g h t h o u r s fl o w n b y a l l u n i t s o f F A S W 2
a v e r a g e d 4 0 0 0 w i t h a m a x i m u m o f 6 4 7 8 fl o w n i n J u l y, 1 9 4 3 .
Ta b l e 4 b e l o w d e t a i l s t h e a c t i o n o f t h e W i n g . D u r i n g t h e

10

(

(

(

Ta b l e

3

1S U M M A R Y O F

ACTION

Sep 42 -

Jan

Dec

May 43

42

43

FAW 1 2

-

6 8

June
Nov

43

-

43

Dec

43

-

June
Nov

May 44

44

-

Dec

44-

Jul

44

45

4352
Searches

Made

No

record

No

record

(beginning
August)
1

6092

3740

2507

submarine

Enemy Ships Damaged or Sunk

L - i

N o n e

Damaged

N o n e

N o n e

N o n e

Own Planes Lost (Combat)

M

N o n e
N o n e

N o n e

N o n e

N o n e

N o n e

N o n e

Own Planes Lost (Operations)
Own Planes Damaged (Combat)
Own Planes Damaged (Operations)

No

Personnel

N o n e

Lost

record

N o n e

N o n e

3

3

1 5

2

N o n e

N o n e

9

7

9

3 7

1 3

N o n e

3

1 0

1

1

N o n e

1

Ta b l e

N o n e

1

4
6 9

A C T I O N

Dec

42

Feb

43

-

SUMMARY

Mar

43

Jun

OF

FA S W 2

43

-

Jul

43

Dec

43

-

Jan

44

Jun

44

-

Jul

44

Nov

44

-

Dec

44

Jun

45

1799

1 3 8 1

1022

N o n e

N o n e

N o n e

N o n e

N o n e

157

Enemy Ships Damaged or Sunk
Own Blimps Lost (combat)
Own Blimps Lost (operations)
Own Blimps Damaged (combat)
Own Blimps Damaged (operations)

N o n e

N o n e

N o n e

N o n e

N o n e

N o n e

N o n e

N o n e

N o n e

N o n e

N o n e

5

6

3

5

Personnel

N o n e

N o n e

1

9

1

1

Missions

Lost

2315

N o n e

1 7 6
N o n e

Operational

1

sub
1

dam.

4
N o n e

2
N o n e

N o n e
N o n e

-

e n t i r e p e r i o d , o n e s i i b m a r i n e w a s d a m a g e d b y a FA S W 2 a i r s h i p ,
32

.

.

and no airships were damaged from combat. The one airship
lost was number K-66 flying from Key West on 7 July 1942.

Forty nautical miles southwest from Meacham Field, the crew
of K-66 sighted a surfaced U-boat and closed for the kill.
As the adversaries exchanged fire with .50 caliber machine

guns, and with the blimp's starboard engine shot out, K-66
attempted to drop its depth charges on the target. When the
release mechanism failed, the gun dual continued until K-66
was shot down. Eleven of the crew of twelve were rescued,
and the U-boat was presumed to have escaped.

Army

Air

Force

The AAF's ASW Command was established in October 1942

with Brigadier General W. T. Larson as Commanding Officer.
A subordinate unit of this command was the 26th Air Wing

headquartered in the DuPont Building in Miami, Florida. By
February 1943, approximately sixty-two AAF B-24 Liberators
were assigned to Florida bases at Lantana (West Palm Beach),
B a n a n a R i v e r , M i a m i , a n d Ta m p a . O n 1 0 J u n e 1 9 4 3 , G e n e r a l
Marshall finally decided that ASW operations should be the
exclusive mission of the Navy; the Amy's ASW Command sub

sequently was disbanded on 1 September 1943. By this time,
the Navy had enough trained flight crews and aircraft to
effectively perform the ASW mission. The AAF's specially-

equipped B-24s were turned over to the Navy.^^

1 2

The early workhorse of the AAF's ASW patrols was the

B-18; this was augmented by the DB-7B, A-20, A-29 and the
B-34. Having limited range, it was important that they be

replaced by the B-24.^^ The following units operated from
F l o r i d a a i r fi e l d s : 7 6 t h B o m b e r S q u a d r o n ( Ta m p a ) ; 7 8 t h B o m b e r

Squadron (Miami and Jacksonville); 18th Observation Squadron
( B a n a n a R i v e r a n d J a c k s o n v i l l e ) ; 11 2 t h O b s e r v a t i o n S q u a d r o n
(Lantana); and the 79th and 80th Bomber Squadrons (home air
fields

unknown

to

this

writer). The

Jacksonville

airbase

and its respective units were under the operational command
o f t h e 2 5 t h A i r W i n g w h i c h w a s h e a d q u a r t e r e d i n N e w Yo r k .

37

Appendix 2 is a chart depicting the daily air area coverage
of bomber and observation squadrons operating under the Gulf
Ta s k F o r c e . F l o r i d a - b a s e d s q u a d r o n o p e r a t i o n a l s u m m a r i e s
w e r e g e n e r a l l y u n a v a i l a b l e t o t h i s w r i t e r ; h o w e v e r, t h e
November 1942 Jacksonville Summary of 125 missions totaling
373 hours may indicate the tempo of operations.

38

Early in 1942, statistical analysis and a series of
experiments based on the study of US and British ASW attacks
provided the basis for significant revision of tactical
doctrine.

It

was

found

that

camouflaging

aircraft,

con

ducting searches at higher altitudes, and effectively using
cloud cover enhanced the probability of detecting a target
on the surface. It was also determined that the elapsed
time from the start of a U-boat's crash dive until only a
small swirl remained was approximately forty-seven seconds.
W

1 3

This short time allowed little opportunity for accurate and

successful reattack of a target. Therefore, air crews were
directed to attack strongly on their first attack, dropping
all depth charges on the first pass (set shallow at thirty
feet instead of fifty feet) before the submarine could dive
deep.

Civil

Air

Patrol

Organization

In late 1941, as it became more likely that the U.S.

would enter the global conflict, civilian aviators recognized
the potential assistance that they could provide the U.S.
government, and they began to lobby Congress for the forma
tion

of

a

civilian

aviation

a u x i l i a r y.

Despite

the

protests

o f s k e p t i c s i n C o n g r e s s a n d t h e m i l i t a r y, t h e C i v i l A i r
Patrol (CAP) was founded on 1 December 1941 as a division of
the Office of Civilian Defense. CAP later became an auxiliary

o f t h e A A F i n A p r i l 1 9 4 3 . C A P, w i t h W i n g C o m m a n d s i n e a c h
state, was organized into the Southern Liaison Patrol, the
Courier Service, the Forest Patrol and—the subject of this

paper—the Coastal Patrol.The Wings were composed of
several squadrons with anywhere from 50 to 200 personnel
assigned per squadron. There were various sources of CAP
funding, including the Government, and oil companies who
were losing ships to U-boat sinkings. Not the most insigni
ficant source were the pilots and personnel of each unit, who
provided the aircraft and other operating equipment. Pilots
were to be compensated with a daily allowance of eight dollars.

1 4

and observers were to receive five dollars per day; however,
these payments were often grossly in arrears. For the most

part, CAP volunteers worked out of dedication to duty and
love

of

aviation.

The first Florida airfield, CAP Base Three, located at
Lantana (activated 30 March 1942; first patrol on 2 April

1942) was part of the initial ninety-day CAP Coastal Patrol
e x p e r i m e n t . B a s e F i v e a t D a y t o n a — F l a g l e r B e a c h ( 11 M a r c h ,
1 9 4 2 ; 1 9 M a y, 1 9 4 2 ) , B a s e S e v e n a t M i a m i ( 1 3 M a y, 1 9 4 2 ;
1 4 M a y, 1 9 4 2 ) , B a s e T h i r t e e n a t S a r a s o t a ( 9 J u l y, 1 9 4 2 ;
7 A u g u s t , 1 9 4 2 ) , a n d B a s e F o u r t e e n a t P a n a m a C i t y ( 1 6 J u l y,
4 2

1 9 4 2 ; 8 A u g u s t , 1 9 4 2 ) f o l l o w e d t h e r e a f t e r. C A P C o a s t a l
Patrol operations terminated on 31 August, 1943, when the
Navy was able to assiame full responsibility for coastal ASW

p a t r o l s . T h e F l o r i d a W i n g C o m m a n d e r f r o m 1 D e c e m b e r, 1 9 4 1 ,
t o 6 A p r i l , 1 9 4 3 , w a s C o l o n e l W r i g h t Ve r m i l y a ; h e w a s
s u c c e e d e d b y M a j o r R . P. R o b b i n s .

CAP

General

44

Operations

CAP pilots flew an assortment of aircraft that were
primarily single-engine and privately-owned. These included
S t i n s o n Vo y a g e r s , R e l i a n t s , F a i r c h i l d s , Wa c o s , C u r t i s R o b i n s ,
Monocoaches, Cessnas, Beechcrafts, Gull-Wings, Grumman
4 5

W i d g e o n s , R e a r w i n g , Ta y l o r c r a f t s , a n d H o w a r d s . I n g e n e r a l ,
aircraft assigned for overwater patrol were required to have
a rating of greater than ninety horsepower because the patrols

1 5

often extended to greater than fifty miles offshore. Air
c r a f t , u s u a l l y m a n n e d b y a p i l o t a n d o b s e r v e r, fl e w i n p a i r s
on overwater missions. Early CAP ASW patrols were flown un

armed, but the incident of a grounded U-boat that escaped
from

an

unarmed

CAP

aircraft

caused

AAF

General

Arnold

to

order all CAP aircraft be fitted to carry 100 pound bombs
or depth charges.

46

The CAP was the de facto primary airborne coastal ASW

f o r c e i n t h e e a r l y p a r t o f t h e w a r. D u r i n g t h e h i g h - t e m p o
p e r i o d o f o p e r a t i o n s , w h i c h w a s f r o m M a y, 1 9 4 2 t o A u g u s t ,
1943, total missions flown from the five Florida bases

averaged 300 per week. The busiest time occurred in the
fi r s t w e e k o f O c t o b e r, 1 9 4 2 w h e n a p p r o x i m a t e l y 6 0 0 m i s s i o n s

^ were flown.There appears to be a direct correlation
between Florida CAP missions and the occurrence of ship

sinkings in the Gulf Sea Frontier; the obvious inference is
that U-boats disappeared in direct proportion to an increase
in CAP operations. This observation is supported by the
quote of a high-ranking German Naval Officer after the war
who, when asked why German U-boats had been withdrawn from
US coastal waters early in 1943, replied "It was because of
4 8

those damned little red and yellow (CAP) planes!" For
their efforts, individuals of the CAP Coastal Patrol were
awarded a total of 824 Air Medals, of which 145 went to
4 9

members flying from Florida bases. Appendix 3 is a chart
depicting daily air area coverage by CAP Coastal Patrol units
o p e r a t i n g u n d e r t h e G u l f Ta s k F o r c e .

1 6

CAP

Specific

Operations

The need for a coastal patrol base in Northwest Florida
was made obvious by the fact that seventy-eight ships were
s u n k i n t h e G u l f o f M e x i c o i n M a y, J u n e , a n d J u l y o f 1 9 4 2 .
With a proposal to build a major shipyard at Panama City
under consideration, and when the Empire Mica was torpedoed
off Apalachicola, CAP's Base Fourteen was activated at

Panama City.^^ Commanded by Major Robert Dodge, the base was
manned mostly by CAP personnel from Ohio, as there were in
sufficient locals. The runway was nothing more than a grass
field with no permanent lighting. Two-plane, three-hour ASW
patrols were flown using only those aircraft with greater
than 125 horsepower. During the winter, there were three

p a t r o l s d a i l y, w h i l e i n s u m m e r f o u r p a t r o l s w e r e fl o w n . B a s e
Fourteen's sector of operations was from St. George Island to
Choctowatchee Bay and up to sixty miles from shore.During
its period of operations, one U-boat was sighted by an unarmed
crew who radioed the target information to Base Fourteen.

S u b s e q u e n t l y, a N a v y P B Y f r o m P e n s a c o l a w a s d i s p a t c h e d a n d
5 2

ultimately sank the submarine. A total of six men from Base
Fourteen were killed on operational missions (none of the
d e a t h s w e r e c o m b a t r e l a t e d ) . I r o n i c a l l y, t h e s e w e r e t h e o n l y
fatalities resulting from operational missions flown from the
five

Florida

CAP

bases.

53

CAP Base Five was initially located at Daytona Beach
Airport under the command of Captain J. L. Gresham. Like

17

the majority of personnel who manned this base, Gresham was
from

the

local

5 4

area.

Because

of

limited

funding

for

this

base, Gresham and other volunteers contributed personal funds
and secured a loan from the City of Daytona Beach in order to
build makeshift facilities. Radio equipment had to be
borrowed from local ham operators until funds came later.

5 5

Base Five was assigned a patrol sector that extended from
J a c k s o n v i l l e t o M e l b o u r n e . Ty p i c a l l y, t h e r e w e r e t h r e e
missions scheduled daily; a dawn patrol to Melbourne; a

1300 (1:00 p.m.) mission to Jacksonville; and a 1500 (3:00 p.m.)
mission

to

Melbourne.17000

Hours

were

flown

by

the

total

of thirty-nine aircraft assigned, of which only three were
lost at sea (the aircrews were rescued). During the entire

period of operations, flight operations were canceled due to
poor weather a total of only seven days. Planes from Base
Five made twenty-one attacks on submarines and were reasonably
certain of two kills.Base Five flight operations were
t r a n s f e r r e d t o F l a g l e r B e a c h A i r p o r t e ff e c t i v e 2 8 O c t o b e r,
1942, and remained there until termination of the Coastal
P a t r o l .

Operations from CAP Base Three at Lantana, the third
base activated in the Coastal Patrol, were highlighted by two

i n c i d e n t s o n 5 M a y, 1 9 4 2 . T h e d a w n p a t r o l s i g h t e d a s u r f a c e d
U-boat off Cape Canaveral that apparently was waiting for an
a p p r o a c h i n g t a n k e r. A f t e r t h e s u b m a r i n e c r a s h - d i v e d , t h e
aircrew

detected

and

followed

W

18

an

oil

slick

on

a

line

between

t h e d i v i n g p o i n t a n d t h e t a n k e r. A N a v y p l a n e t h a t w a s
vectored to the area dropped two depth charges which were
5 9

later reported to have scored possible hits. The second
incident was that of the previously mentioned unarmed CAP

patrol that observed a U-boat run aground near the mouth of
the Banana River (near Cape Canaveral). The aircrew radioed
for assistance, but the U-boat managed to free itself before
it

could

be

attacked.

Initially located at Miami's municipal airport, CAP
Base Seven was later moved to outlying Chapman Field because

o f i n c r e a s i n g N a v a l A i r a c t i v i t y. C o m m a n d e d b y M a j o r L . F a l e ,
fliers from Base Seven sighted a total of eight U-boats, but
were credited with no sinkings.

Although always on the lookout for submarines, aviators
from CAP Base Thirteen were assigned the primary mission of
a i r - s e a r e s c u e c o o r d i n a t i o n . I n i t i a l l y l o c a t e d a t Ta m p a ,
the base was later moved to Sarasota so as to be more cen-

trally located in the assigned sector of operations.
United

States

Coast

62

Guard

R e g r e t f u l l y, d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g C o a s t G u a r d
airborne patrols flown from Florida bases was virtually in
a c c e s s i b l e . T h e f o l l o w i n g i s a b r i e f s y n o p s i s o f a c t i v i t y.

Regular air patrols were first organized in 1940, with
missions flown from Florida bases located at Miami and St.

Petersburg. These Coast Guard missions, tasked with ASW and
W

19

convoy escort patrols, were generally assigned search sectors
from 100 to 200 miles off principal ports. Coast Guard

p a t r o l s w e r e c o o r d i n a t e d b y t h e N a v y ' s A r e a C o m m a n d e r, a n d
were ultimately controlled by the commander of the Gulf Sea
6 "3

F r o n t i e r. E a r l y i n t h e w a r, t h e C o a s t G u a r d u s e d t h e
following aircraft for ASW patrols; twin engine amphibians
(max. speed 150 kts.; range 700 nm); PH-2 Hall Flying Boats
(160 kts; 1000 nm). The Coast Guard later transitioned to
the J4F and JRF (both Griimman amphibious aircraft) , and ver
s i o n s o f t h e N a v y ' s P B M , P B Y, a n d 0 5 2 U 3 . C o a s t G u a r d A S W

patrols were terminated in October, 1944, when the submarine
threat had all but disappeared.

64

Summary

A s h a s b e e n t y p i c a l t h r o u g h o u t i t s h i s t o r y, t h e U n i t e d
States was not fully prepared when it entered World War II.
This is exemplified by the general disarray of the ASW

organization, and by the length of time required for the Navy
to finally ass\ime full responsibility for land-based ASW

p a t r o l s . F o r t u n a t e l y, t h e C o a s t G u a r d a n d t h e C A P, f o l l o w e d
by the AAF, were able to perform the mission of coastal air
borne ASW until the Navy could muster enough men and aircraft
to do the job- It was through the joint effort of these
four forces that Florida-based airborne ASW units were able to

deter and finally eradicate the U-boat menace in the Gulf Sea
F r o n t i e r .

20

APPENDIX

1

NAVAL AIRCRAFT AND AIRSHIPS USED FOR ASW PATROL^^
VP

PAT R O L

PLANES

Lockheed-Vega PV-1 "Ventura." Six place; span 65*6";
length 51'9"; height 14'3"; two 2000 h.p. Pratt & Whitney
R-2800 engines; speed 313 m.p.h.; armament 5-.5ocal. fixed
machine guns, 4-.5ocal flexible machine guns, 5000 lb. bombs.

V P B PAT R O L B O M B E R S

Boeing (Canada) PB2B-2 "Catalina." Duplicates Consoli
dated

P B Y- 6 A .

C o n s o l i d a t e d P B Y- 1 " C a t a l i n a . " E i g h t p l a c e ; s p a n 1 0 4 * ;
length 65'2"; height 18*6"; two 900 h.p. Pratt & Whitney
R-1830 engines; speed 191 m.p.h.; armament 2-.3ocal. and
2-5ocal. flexible machine guns, 4000 lb. bombs or 2 torpedoes.
P B Y- 5 " C a t a l i n a . " N i n e p l a c e ; s p a n 1 0 4 ' ; l e n g t h 6 4 ' ;
height 19'; two 1200 h.p. Pratt & Whitney R-1830 engines;
speed 195 m.p.h.; armament 2-.3ocal. and 2-.5ocal. flexible
machine guns, 4000 lb. bombs or 2 torpedoes.
P B Y- 5 A " C a t a l i n a . " A m p h i b i a n v e r s i o n o f P B Y- 5 .

P B Y- 6 A " C a t a l i n a . " N i n e p l a c e ; s p a n 1 0 4 ' ; l e n g t h 6 5 ' ;
h e i g h t 1 7 ' 11 " ; t w o 1 2 0 0 h . s . P r a t t & W h i t n e y R - 1 8 3 Q e n g i n e s ;
speed 195 m.p.h.; armament 10.3ocal. and 3-.5ocal. flexible
machine guns, 4000 lb. bombs or 2 torpedoes.
P B 2 Y- 3 " C o r o n a d o . " Te n p l a c e ; s p a n 1 1 5 ' ; l e n g t h 7 9 ' 3 " ;
height 24'8"; four 1200 h.p. Pratt & Whitney R-1830 engines;
speed 230 m.p.h.; armament 8-.5ocal. flexible machine guns
12,000 lb. bombs or 2 torpedoes.

P B 2 Y- 5 " C o r o n a d o . " Te n p l a c e ; s p a n 1 1 5 ' ; l e n g t h 7 9 ' 3 " ;
height 27'6"; four 1200 h.s. Pratt & Whitney R-1830 engines;
speed 230 m.p.h.; armament 8-.5ocal. flexible machine guns,
12,000 lb. bombs or 2 torpedoes.
P B 4 Y- 1 " L i b e r a t o r. " E l e v e n p l a c e ; s p a n 11 0 ' ; l e n g t h

6 6 ' 4 " ; h e i g h t 1 7 ' 11 " ; f o u r 1 2 0 0 h . s . P r a t t & W h i t n e y R - 1 8 3 0
engines; speed 270 m.p.h.; armament 13-.5ocal. flexible

machine guns, 8000 lb. bombs.
P B 4 Y- 2 " P r i v a t e e r. " E l e v e n p l a c e ; s p a n 11 0 ' ; l e n g t h

74'7"; height 30'1"; four 1350 h.s. Pratt & Whitney R-1830
engines; speed 237 m.p.h.; armament 12-.5ocal. flexible

machine guns, 12,800 lb. bombs.
Lockheed PBO-1 "Hudson." Five place; span 65'5"; length

4 4 ' 5 " ; h e i g h t 11 ' 1 0 " ; t w o 1 2 0 0 h . p . W r i g h t R - 1 8 2 0 e n g i n e s ;
speed 275 m.p.h.; armament 7-.3ocal. flexible machine guns,
V

V

11 5 0

lb.

bombs.

2 1

M a r t i n P B M - 3 " M a r i n e r. " S i x p l a c e ; s p a n 11 8 ' ; l e n g t h
80'1"; height 24*5"; two 1900 h.s. Wright R-2600 engines;
s p e e d 2 11 m . p . h . ; a r m a m e n t l - . 3 o c a l . a n d 5 - . 5 o c a l . fl e x i b l e
machine guns, 12,800 lb. bombs or 2 torpedoes. PBM-5
" M a r i n e r. " N i n e p l a c e ; s p a n 11 8 * ; l e n g t h 7 9 ' 1 0 " ; h e i g h t
27'6"; two 2100 h.p. Pratt & Whitney R-2800 engines; speed
200 m.p.h.; armament 8-.5ocal. flexible machine guns, 12,800
lb. bombs or 2 torpedoes.
Naval Aircraft Factory PBN-1 "Nomad." Duplicates
Consolidated

P B Y- 6 A .

S O , V O S , O R V S O B S E R VAT I O N P L A N E S

C u r t i s s S O C - 3 " S e a g u l l . " Tw o p l a c e ; s p a n 3 6 ' ; l e n g t h
31'9"; height 14'10"; one 550 h.p. Pratt & Whitney R-1340
engine; speed 164 m.p.h.; armament 1 fixed and 1 flexible
.3ocal. machine gun, 470 lb. bombs.
SC-1 "Seahawk." One place; span 41'; length 37'8";

height 16"; one 1350 h.p. Wright R-1820 engine; speed 313
m.p.h.; armament 20.5ocal. fixed machine guns, 1300 lb. bombs.
Naval Aircraft Factory SON-1 "Seagull." Duplicates
Curtiss

SOC-3.

OS2N-I "Kingfisher." Duplicates Vought-Sikorsky OS2-U-2.
Vought-Sikorsky OS2-U-2 "Kingfisher." Two place; span

^ 35'11"; length 33'7"; height 15'1"; one 450 h.s. Pratt &

Whitney R-985 engine; speed 177 m.p.h.; armament 1 fixed and
1 flesible .3ocal. machine gun, 650 lb. bombs.

Z N P PAT R O L A I R S H I P S ( B L I M P S )

K-3 class (K 3-13). Eight place; length 250'; volume
415,000 cubic feet; two 400 h.p. Wright R-975 engines; speed
65 m.p.h.; armament l-.5ocal. machine gun, 1200 lb. bombs or
depth charges.
K-14 class (K-14-135). Nine place; length 251'; volume

425,000 cubic feet; two 600 h.p. Pratt & Whitney R-1340
engines; speed 65 m.p.h.; armament l-.5ocal. machine gun,
1200 lb. bombs or depth charges, K74 and 94 lost.

M - 1 c l a s s ( 1 - 4 ) . Tw e l v e p l a c e ; l e n g t h 2 9 4 ' ; v o l u m e
725,000 cubic feet; two 600 h.p. Pratt & Whitney R-1340
engines; speed 65 m.p.h.; armament l-.5ocal. machine gun,
2000 lb. bombs or depth charges.

2 2

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APPENDIX 3

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IN

r o N «
V



Samuel Eliot Morison, History of United States Naval
Operations in World VJar II (Boston, 1947), I, 413.
I b i d ,

'ibid.
Barbara

2 0 0 .

G.

Green,

The

History

of

Coastal

Patrol

Base

Fourteen (1979), p. 6 (from the files of COL. L. E. Hopper,
CAP) .

^Morison, p. 207.
^J. R. Mickler (LCDR, USNR), Key West in World War II
(1945), p. 86.

^Ibid.

^Morison, pp. 206-207.
^Ibid., p. 237-240.
^^Ernest J. King (ADM, USN) and Walter M. Whitehill
( C D R , U S N R ) , F l e e t A d m i r a l K i n g ( N e w Yo r k , 1 9 5 2 ) , p p . 4 5 2 459.

^^Morison, p. 242.

^^Ibid., p. 243.
^^King, pp. 464-468.
^^CINCLANTFLT Files (Fleet Air Wing 12), Office of the
Chief of Naval Operations, Naval Aviation History and Archives
(OP-05D2).

^^Ibid.
^^Ibid.
^^Ibid.

^^Morison, I, 250.
^^CINCLANTFLT Files (Fleet Air Ship Wing 2).
20lbid.

^^Mickle, p. 87.
^^Morison, I, 240.
^^Ibid., p. 242.

^^Ibid., p. 226.
^^Ibid., p. 250.
^^CINCLANTFLT Files, Fleet Air Wing, 2.

^^Ibid., Fleet Airship Wing 2.

2 5

^ ° M i c k l e r, p . 8 8 .

^^CINCLANTFLT Files, Fleet Air Wing 12.
^°Ibid.

^^Mickler, p. 87.
^^CINCLANTFLT Files. Fleet Airship Wing 2.

^^Mickler, p. 87.
^^Morison, I, p. 242.
^^Ibid., p. 245
E. Hopper (COL, CAP). Coastal Patrol Study Files,
Vol.

II,

No.

15,

p.

12.

^^Ibid., No. 17.
^®Ibid., No. 16.
^^Ibid., p. 14.
"^^Elizabeth W. King, "Heroes of Wartime Science and
Mercy," The National Geographic Magazine, Vol. 84, No. 6,
Dec. 1943, p. 720.

^^Robert E. Neprud. Flying Minute Men (New York, 1948),
p. 10, 23.

^^Ibid., p. 34.
^^•Ibid., p. 45.

^^Ibid., p. 123.
^^Author's note: Compiled from Jeeps in the Sky, Flying
M i n u t e M e n , a n d C A P C o a s t a l P a t r o l B a s e Tw e n t y - O n e .

^®Robert L. Ten Eyck (LCOL, AAF), Jeeps in the Sky
( N e w Yo r k , 1 9 4 6 ) , p p . 2 7 - 2 8 .

^\uthor*s note; Exact Florida figures were unavailable;

the author interpolated these figures from the Coastal Patrol
Operational Summary in COL Hopper * s A Review of Civil Air
Patrol Coastal Patrol Operations Reports, assuming that

Florida's five bases accounted for approximately one-fourth
of the total missions of the twenty-one Coastal Patrol Bases.
4 8

Neprud, p. 46.

ACk

Phone

conversation

with

COL

Hopper.

Barbara G. Green, The History of Coastal Patrol Base

Fourteen (1979; from the CAP Files of COL. L. E. Hopper),
p.

6.

^^Ibid., p. 7.
^^Ibid.

^^Neprud, p. 120.

26

C . Y. N a n n e y , J r . , C . A . P, C o a s t a l P a t r o l B a s e N o . 5
History (1943; from the files of LCOL Elizabeth Sedita).

^^Ibid.

^^Ibid.

^^Neprud, p. 38.
5 8

N a n n e y.
5 9

Neprud, p. 18.

®^Ibid., p. 39.
®^Ibid., p. 43.
®^Malcolm F. Willoughby. The U.S. Coast Guard in World
War II (Annapolis, Maryland, 1957), p. 38.
I b i d .

^^Morison, XV, 113-114.
^^CINCLANTFLT Files.
^^Ibid.
^®Ibid.
^^Ibid.

^^Reproduced from: L. E. Hopper (COL, CAP), Coastal

P a t r o l S t u d y F i l e s , Vo l . I I , N o . 1 7 .

^^Ibid.

W

2 7

B I B L I O G R A P H Y

Burnham,

Frank

A.

Hero

Next

Door.

Fallbrook,

California,

1974

C I N C L A N T F LT F i l e s ( F l e e t A i r W i n g 1 2 , F l e e t A i r s h i p W i n g 2 ) .
Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, Naval Aviation
History and Archives (OP-05D2).
Green,

Barbara

G.

The

History

of

Coastal

Patrol

Base

Fourteen.

1 9 7 9 ( f r o m fi l e s o f C O L L . E . H o p p e r , C . A . P. ; C h a i r m a n ,
National Historical Committee, Civil Air Patrol).
H o p p e r , L . E . ( C O L , C . A . P. ) . A R e v i e w o f C i v i l A i r P a t r o l
Coastal Patrol Operations
August
1943.
1982.

Reports,

5

March

1942-31

H o p p e r , L . E . ( C O L , C . A . P. ) . C o a s t a l P a t r o l S t u d y F i l e s ,
Volume

II,

Numbers

14-17.

K i n g , E l i z a b e t h W. " H e r o e s o f Wa r t i m e S c i e n c e a n d M e r c y. "
The

National

Geographic

Magazine,

Vol.

84,

No.

6,

Dec. 43, pp. 715-740.

King, Ernest J. (Admiral, USN), and Walter M. Whitehill
( C o m m a n d e r, U S N R ) . F l e e t A d m i r a l K i n g . N e w Yo r k , 1 9 5 2 .
M e l l o r, W i l l i a m B . J r. S a n k S a m e . N e w Yo r k , 1 9 4 4 .
Mickler, J. R. (LCDR, USNR). Key West in World War II.
1945

(from

the

Office

of

Public

Affairs,

Naval

Air

Station, Key West, Florida).

M o r g a n , E . M . ( L T, U S N ) . " T h e P a t r o l P l a n e C o n t r o v e r s y . "
United

States

Naval

Institute

Proceedings.

Vol.

69,

No. 485, July 1943, pp. 939-940.
Morison, Samuel Eliot. History of United States Naval
Operations

in

World

War

II.

Volumes

I

and

X V.

Boston,

1 9 4 7 .

N a n n e y , C . Y. , J r . C . A . P. C o a s t a l P a t r o l B a s e N o . 5 H i s t o r y .
1 9 4 3 ( f r o m t h e fi l e s o f L C O L E l i z a b e t h S e d i t a , C A P,
Florida CAP Wing Historian).

N e p r u d , R o b e r t E . F l y i n g M i n u t e M e n . N e w Yo r k , 1 9 4 8 .
Te n E y c k , R o b e r t L . ( C O L , A A F ) . J e e p s i n t h e S k y. N e w Yo r k ,
1 9 4 6 .

W e r n e r , M . J . ( C a p t a i n , C A P ) a n d G . W . G r o v e ( L T, C A P ) .
CAP

Coastal

Patrol

Base

COL Hopper).

28

Twenty-One

(from

the

files

of

6Z

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